Flashcards in Psychology Module 2 Deck (24):
1. Psychologists use at least three methods to answer questions or obtain information. an in depth analysis of a single persons thoughts and behaviors is called A. One advantage of this method is that researchers obtain detailed information about a person, but one disadvantage is that such information may not apply to others. asking a large number of individuals a fixed set of questions is called a B. Gathering information in a controlled laboratory setting is called an C.
A. Case Study B. Survey C. Experiment
2. Measuring the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of a large sample of individuals by asking a set of questions is called a A. One advantage of this method is that psychologist can quickly and efficiently collect information about a large number of people. One disadvantage is that people may answer in a way that they think is socially more acceptable.
3. A statement that supports a particular viewpoint and is based on a persons own experience is called a A., which has two potential sources of error and bias. First, strongly held personal beliefs may bias an individuals B. of events. Second, believing strongly that something will happen and then unknowingly acting in such a way as to make that something occur is a source of error called C. This source of error is one of the major reasons that people believe that their D. are true.
A. Testimonial B. Perceptions C. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy D. Testimonial
Cultural Diversity: Use Of Placebos
4. Some intervention that resembles a medical therapy but that, in fact, has no medical effects is called a A. If a person reports an improvement in some medical condition that is due to a supposed treatment rather than some medical therapy, that is called a B. One reason people around the world believe in placebos is that people give C. to their effectiveness.
A. Placebo B. Placebo Effect C. Testimonials
5. If two or more events are associated or linked together, they are said to be A. The strength of this association is indicated by a number called the B. which has a range from -1.00 to +1.00.
A. Correlated B. Correlation Coefficient
6. If there were a perfect association between two events for example, when one increased the other did also, this would be called a A. If an increase in one event is usually, but not always, accompanied by an increase by a second event, this would be called a B. If an increase in one event is always accompanied by a decrease in a second event, this is called a C. If an increase in one event is usually, but not always, accompanied by a decrease in a second event, this is called a D.
A. Perfect Positive Correlation B. Positive Correlation C. Perfect Negative Correlation D. Negative Correlation
7. Although a correlation indicates that two or more events are occurring in some pattern, a correlation does not identify which event may A. the other(s). Although correlations do not identify cause and effect relationships, they do provide B. as to where to look for causes and they help to C. behavior.
A. Cause B. Clues C. Predict
Decisions About Doing Research
8. Psychologists may answer some questions by using one or more of five commonly used research techniques. asking questions about peoples attitudes and behaviors, usually in a one on one situation, is using an A. Asking subject to read a list of questions and indicate a specific answer is using a B. Asking subjects to complete established tests that measure personality, intelligence, or other behaviors is using C. If psychologists study subjects behaviors under careful controlled conditions that allow manipulation of the treatment, they are conducting a D. Psychologists can study a problem using animals by developing an E., which closely approximates the humane disease or condition.
A. Interview B. Questionnaire C. Standardized Tests D. Laboratory Study or Experiment E. Animal Model
9. Psychologists conduct research in two common settings. If psychologists obtain information by observing an individuals behaviors in his or hers environment, without attempts to control or manipulate the situation, they would be using a A. The advantage of this method is that it gives information that would be difficult to obtain or duplicate in a laboratory. The disadvantage of this ,method is that the psychologists own beliefs or values may bias their observations and cause them to misinterpret the behaviors under observation.
A. Naturalistic Setting
10. If psychologists study a single individual in considerable depth in his or her own environment, they are using a A. The advantage of this method is that it results in detailed descriptions.and insights into many aspects of an individuals life. The disadvantage is that the information obtained may be unique and not applicable to others.
A. Case Study
11. If psychologists want to study individuals under controlled and systematic conditions, with many of the real life factors removed, they do the study in a A. The advantage of this setting is that it permits greater control and manipulation of many conditions while ruling out possible contamination factors. The disadvantage of this setting is that it may be to artificial or controlled, so that the results may not be necessarily apply to real life situations.
A. Laboratory Setting
12. The scientific method offers a set of rules or guidelines on how to conduct a research with a minimum of error or bias. We have divided these guidelines into seven rules. Rule 1 is to make statement in precise, concrete terms. such a statement is called a A., which researchers often develop based on previous observations or studies. Rule 2 is to identify the treatment or something the experimenter manipulates, which is called the B. In addition, the experimenter selects behaviors that are to be used to measure the potential effects of the the treatment. These selected behaviors are called the C., and they may include a wide range of behaviors, such as cognitive processes, observable behaviors, or measurable physiological responses. Rule 3 is to choose subject so that each one in a sample has an equal chance of being selected. One procedure for doing so is called D. Rule 4 is to assign subjects randomly to one of two groups. The group that will receive the treatment is called the E., and the group that will undergo everything but the treatment is called the F. Rule 5 is to manipulate the G. by administering it (or one level of it) to the experimental group but not to the control group. The procedure for preventing researchers or subjects from knowing who is getting the treatment is called the H. Rule 6 is to measure the effect of the independent variable on behaviors that have been selected as the I. Rule 7 is to analyze differences between behaviors of subject in the experimental group and those int he control group by using various J., which determines whether differences were due to the treatment or to chance occurrence. By following these seven rules, researchers reduce the chances that K. caused their results.
A. Hypothesis B. Independent Variable C. Dependent Variables D. Random Selection E. Experimental Group F. Control Group G. Independent Variable H. Double-Blind Procedure I. Dependent Variable J. Statistical Procedure K. Error or Bias
Research Focus: ADHD Controversies
13. One controversy over ADHD is that, as of this writing, the diagnosis of ADHD is based on A. observations, which are not always clear-cut, rather than on more reliable B. tests. Another controversies involves how best to treat ADHD. For more ADHD, researchers recommend a combination of C. and D. treatment. However, even though Ritalin can decrease hyperactivity in children and increase their ability to pay E., Ritalin does not necessarily improve reading or social skills and does not necessarily reduce problems occurring during adolescence and adulthood.
A. Behavioral B. Medical or Laboratory C. Ritalin D. Behavioral E. Attention
Application: Research Concerns
14. One method of counteracting potential harmful effects on experimental subjects is by thoroughly A. them. This includes explaining the purpose and method of the experiment, asking subjects about their feelings, and helping subjects deal with possible doubts or problems arising from the experiment.