Flashcards in Psychology Module 10 Deck (34):
1. a kind of learning in which the consequences that follow from behavior increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again is called A.
A. Operant conditioning
2.to explain how random trial and error behaviors of cat's became goal directed behaviors Thorndike formulated that A., which says that behaviors are strengthened by positive consequences and weakened by negative consequences
A. Law of effect
3. Skinner used the term operant A. To describe something that can be modified by its consequences. Operant responses provide one way to separate ongoing behaviors into units that can be observed and measured. Skinner believed that Pavlovs conditioning, which involves physiological B., Was not very useful in understanding other forms of ongoing behaviors.
A. Response, B. Reflexes
4.suppose you wish to operantly condition your dog, bingo, to sit up. The procedure would be as follows. You would give bingo a treat, which is called a A., After he emits a desired behavior. Because it is unlikely that bingo will initially sit up, you will use a procedure called B., Which is a process of reinforcing those behaviors that lead up to or approximate the final desired behavior – sitting up. Immediately after bingo emitted a desired behavior, you would give him a C.
A. Reinforcer, B. Shaping C. Reinforcer
5.any behavior that increases in frequency because of an accidental pairing of a reinforcer and that behavior is called a A. Behavior
6. the essence of operant conditioning can be summed up as follows: consequences or reinforcers are contingent on A.
7. if you compare classical and operant conditioning,you will find the following differences. In classical conditioning, the response is an involuntary A. That is elicited by the B. In operant conditioning, the response is a voluntary, C. That is performed or D. By the organism. In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is presented at the beginning of the trial and elicits the E. in operant conditioning, the organism emits a behavior that is immediately followed by a F.
A. Reflex, B. Unconditioned stimulus, C. Behavior D. Emitted E. unconditioned response F. Reinforcer
8. in operant conditioning, the term consequences, refers to what happens after the occurrence of a behavior. If a consequence increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again, it is called a A. If a consequence decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again, is called a B.
A. Reinforcer, B. Punishment
9. If a stimulus increases the chances that a response will occur again, that stimulus is called A. If the removal of one aversive stimulus increases the chances that a response will occur again, that aversive stimulus is called a B. Both positive and negative reinforcement, C. The frequency of the respondents they follow. In contrast, punishments is a consequence that D. The likelihood that a behavior will occur again.
A positive reinforcer, B negative reinforcer, C. Increase D. Decreases
10.the stimuli of food, water, and sex, which are innately satisfying and required no learning to become pleasurable are called A. The stimuli of praise, money, and good grades have acquired the reinforcing properties through experience; these stimuli are called B.
A. Primary reinforcers, B. Secondary reinforcers
schedules of reinforcement
11.a program of rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcer is called a A.
A. Schedule of reinforcement
12.if you received reinforcement every time you perform a good deed, you would be on a A. Schedule. This schedule is often used at the beginning of operant conditioning because it results in a rapid rate of learning. If your good deeds were not reinforced every time, you would be on a B. Schedule. This schedule is more effective in maintaining the target behavior in the long run. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules.
A. Continuous reinforcement, B. Partial reinforcement
other conditioning concepts
13.the phenomenon in which an organism emits the same response to similar stimuli is called A. If a response is emitted in the presence of a reinforced stimuli, the organism is exhibiting B. If an organisms response is no longer reinforced, it will stopped emitting this behavior, which is an example of C. However, even without reinforcement, an organism may perform the behavior, which is an example of D.
A. Generalization, B. Discrimination, C. Extinction D. Spontaneous recovery
14. The kind of learning that involves mental processes such as attention and memory, that may be learned through observation and imitation, and that may not involve any external rewards or require the person to perform any observable behaviors is called A. According to Tolman, rats developed a mental representation of the layouts of their environment, which he called B.
A. Social cognitive learning, B. Cognitive map
15.if an observer learns a behavior through observation, but does not immediately perform the behavior, this is an example of the A. Distinction
A. Learning performance
16.during his studies of problem-solving in chimpanzees, Kohler used the term A. To describe a mental process marked by the sudden occurrence of a solution.
17. Kholers study of insightful problem-solving, Banduras theory of observational learning, and Tolmans idea of cognitive maps represents three kinds of A. Learning
18.innate tendencies or predispositions that may either facilitate or inhibit learning are referred to as A.
A. Biological factors
19.the innate tendency of newborn birds to follow. The first moving object that they can encounter soon after birth is called A. This kind of learning occurs best during a critical or sensitive period and is essentially B. One function of imprinting is to form social attachments between members of the species.
A imprinting B. Irreversible
20. the innate tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others, and associate some kind of combination of conditioned or unconditioned stimuli is referred to as A. An example of this tendency is observed in Clark's nutcrackers, which are preprogrammed to Barry and remember thousands of hidden stores of food.
A. Preparedness, or prepared learning
research focus: noncompliance
21.one of the most common problems faced by parents is dealing with a child who refuses to follow directions or carry out a request or command. This refusal behavior is called A.
22.an effective way to deal with the child's noncompliance is to use a procedure that involves placing a child in a situation where there is no chance of reinforcers. This mild form of nonphysical punishments is called A
.A. Time out
cultural diversity: East meets West
23.Suzukis method and Banduras theory both emphasize observation, modeling, and imitation. Specifically, both Suzuki and Bandura focus on four concepts: paying A. To the model, placing the information B., Using the information C, the model's actions, and having D. To perform the behavior.
A. Attention B. Memory C. Imitate D. Motivation
application: behavior modification
24.using principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior is referred to as A. Using the same principles to help individuals learn to control ( increase or decrease) some physiological response, such as muscle activity or temperature, is called B.
A. Behavior modification, B. Biofeedback