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Flashcards in Punctuation Deck (142)
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1

What are the 3 marks of TERMINAL PUNCTUATION

  1. PERIOD
  2. EXCLAMATION POINT
  3. QUESTION MARK

2

What are the three kinds of sentences you will find a period at the end of?

  1. Statements - This is a sentence
  2. Commands - Do your homework
  3. Implied Content - Who's there? Sarah.

3

Name the 3 types of statements you'll find an exclamation point at the end of.

  1. Emotionally intense statements
  2. Commands (that are stronger than period)
  3. Interjections

4

What kind of question requires a question mark?

a DIRECT QUESTION

Have the kids eaten yet?

5

When is a question mark NOT used?

for INDIRECT QUESTIONS--these are STATEMENTS not questions.

I wonder if it will rain.

I asked if the kids had eaten

6

What is INFLECTION?

the variation or change of form that words undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number, tense, person, mood, voice, comparison

7

When are periods used outside of terminal punctuation?

  1. Courtesy Titles: Mr. Dr. Ms. Pres.
  2. Initials: J. R. R Tolkein (note the spaces)
  3. Latin Terms: e.g. (not the lack of spaces)

and as a matter of style...

  1. Places - U.S.A
  2. Degrees - Ph.D.
  3. Acronyms - F.B.I.

8

What are the 7 most common uses for a comma?

  1. to signal a short pause in a sentence
  2. to clarify meaning
  3. to separate a list of items
  4. in dates and locations
  5. in Latin abbreviations
  6. with introductory phrases
  7. to set off dialogue tags

9

What is an Oxford/serial comma?

The comma preceding the coordinating conjunction and in a list of three or more items.

10

What is the argument for the serial comma?

The absence of the final comma can invite confusion by suggesting an unintended closeness/relationship.

This book is dedicated to my parents, Ayn Rand and God.

"...encounters with Nelson Mandela, an 800-year-old demigod and a dildo collector"

11

What is the difference between a restrictive vs nonreatrictive appositive in these sentences?

My husband, Rob, is an English professor.

Her sister Susan has blue eyes.

Place commas around nonrestrictive appositives--ie, those which a sentence can stand without.

One-of-a-kinds are restrictive (no commas)--there is only one husband

12

What is the number one test of whether a clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive?

Is the information necessary to the sentence?

13

Add commas as where needed to the following sentences:

The house an old Victorian sold for a hundred dollars.

The house on the corner sold for a hundred dollars.

The answer of course is obvious. You therefore have figured it out.

The house, an old Victorian, sold for a hundred dollars.

The house on the corner sold for a hundred dollars.

The answer, of course, is obvious. You, therefore, have figured it out.

14

What are dialogue tags? When should commas appear?

Dialogue tags are used for DIRECT SPEECH, e.g.,

"No, probably not," Dale said.

"Tell me," I said, "why do you want to do that?"

15

what is the difference between a clause and a phrase?

a clause can stand on its own; it has a subject and verb

a phrase cannot stand on its own

16

What do ADVERBIAL PHRASES do?

they modify the verb (like an adverb)

  • On Tuesday, I bought some pens.
  • With baited breath, I awaited the conclusion.

 

17

How do participial phrases function in a sentence?

often as an ADJECTIVE

  • Invented by Thomas Edison, the lightbulb had a huge impact on...
  • Rushing ahead, Margot didn't see the banana peel.

 

18

What is an ABSOLUTE PHRASE?

a NOUN + PARTICIPLE PHRASE (w optional modifiers and/or object) that modifies an entire sentence

Absolute phrases are set of by commas.

 

  • Lip quivering, the child awaited the punishment.
  • We devoured Aunt Barbara's cake, our fingers scraping the leftover frosting from the plate.

19

How are commas used to separate clauses?

Commas are used to separate subordinate (dependant) clauses from the main (independant) clause...

...when the subordinate clause PRECEDES the independent clause.

So...

Since the child came home, the parents have been more strict.

but...

The parents have been more strict since the child came home.

20

Name the 3 primary uses for a semi-colon.

  1. to provide a stronger break than a comma
  2. for clarity in a long series with internal commas
  3. to connect closely related main clauses when a period would imply too much of a pause.

21

What do COLONS do?

  1. introduce a list
  2. separate title and subtitle
  3. introduce a block quote
  4. introduce a SUMMARY STATEMENT (AKA a POINTING COLON)

22

Colons inroduce what kinds of statements?

Summary or explanatory statements. 

She can't pay the bills: she has no money.

23

A three-point ellipsis indicates...

  1. a pause or trailing off of speech
  2. material that has been omitted.

24

Order hyphens and dashes by size...

  1. hyphen
  2. en dash
  3. em dash

25

Hyphens are used for what part of speech?

compound adjectives.

evidence-based practice

follow-up appointment

26

What 2 instances call for an EN DASH?

  1. a number series: scores, time ranges,  pp. 12-59
  2. joining compounds Middle School-High School Science Fair; Gay-Straight Alliance; New York-Based Artist

27

Identify 3 uses for the EM DASH.

  1. to signal an INTERRUPTION or an abrupt break in speech ("We cannot allow–" Then the phone went dead.")
  2. to set off an appositive or parenthetical
  3. to signal an abrupt shift in thought or meaning

28

Name two uses for apostrophes

  1. Posession
     The KING'S English
  2. Omission
    I CAN'T stand it. The class of '89. Yes, ma'am.

 

29

Use DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS for:

  1. dialogue
  2. quoted material
  3. air quotes
  4. shorter works, such as articles, song titles ...

30

Only use single quotation marks for:

quotes within quotes