What is a NOUN?
a word that denotes a PERSON, PLACE, or THING
Nouns answer the question...
Who or what?
Name the 6 categories of nouns
Concrete or abstract, proper or common, count or mass
Name the nouns in this sentence: The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.
The CLOWN chased a DOG around the RING and then fell flat on her FACE.
What is a PRONOUN?
A word that TAKES THE PLACE OF A NOUN in a sentence.
Name two ways pronouns function in a sentence.
As SUBJECTS or OBJECTS
Name the SUBJECT PRONOUNS
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Name the OBJECT PRONOUNS
me, you, him, her, it, us, them
List all the PRONOUNS in this sentence: Later that summer, she asked, "What was I thinking of?"
Later that summer, SHE asked, "What was *I* thinking of?"
What is a RELATIVE PRONOUN?
A word that introduces a relative (dependent) clause and connects it to an independent clause
Put another way: a type of pronoun that connects a relative (dependent) clause to an independent clause.
Relative pronouns often ADD INFORMATION.
Example: People WHO LIVE IN GLASS HOUSES should not throw stones.
Name the 5 most common RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
who, whom, what, which, that
A clause that begins with a relative pronoun is poised to answer what kinds of questions?
- Which one?
- What kind?
- How many?
What are ADJECTIVES?
Words that MODIFY nouns or pronouns.
Where do adjectives appear in a sentence?
Before NOUNS or after a form of the reflexive verb "to be"
- Determiner – This means an article (a, an, the), a number or amount, a possessive adjective (my, his, her, its, your, our, their), or a demonstrative (this, that, these, those).
- Observation/Opinion – Beautiful, expensive, gorgeous, broken, delicious, ugly
- Size – Huge, tiny, 4-foot-tall
- Shape – Square, circular, oblong
- Age – 10-year-old, new, antique
- Color – Black, red, blue-green
- Origin – Roman, English, Mongolian
- Material – Silk, silver, plastic, wooden
- Qualifier – A noun or verb acting as adjective
Example of ADJECTIVE ORDER
My beautiful, big, circular, antique, brown, English, wooden coffee table was broken in the move.
What is a verb?
A word that denotes an action or state of being.
What is a verb phrase?
A phrase consisting of a verb plus a helping verb; e.g., "She was dancing all night."
List all the verbs in this sentence: Judy walked slowly through the art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.
WALKED and ADMIRED
How do ADVERBS function in a sentence?
They modify, or further describe, a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
What do adjectives and adverbs have in common, and what is the difference between the two?
They both modify or further describe
The difference between the two comes down to the parts of speech that they modify
What questions should you ask to identify adverbs?
What? When? Where? Why? How? (The 5 journalism Qs)
In what way?
List all the adverbs in this sentence:
She looked very pretty in her new dress.
What do CONJUNCTIONS do?
Conjunctions join words, phrases, and independent clauses together.
Sarah enjoyed copy editing, so she pursued a career in it.
I wanted to make it to the show, but the train was stuck.
What are the 3 types of conjunctions?
What do COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS do?
Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases, and independent clauses of EQUAL GRAMMATICAL RANK in a sentence.
Examples: and, but, for, so, or, nor, yet
Name six of the most common coordinating conjunctions.
and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet
What are CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS?
Conjunctions that work together in pairs in a sentence.
Examples: neither/nor, either/or, both/and, not only/but also
● Not only am I finished studying for English, but I’m also finished writing my history essay.
What is a subordinating conjunction?
A conjunction that introduces a dependent clause.
Examples: because, since, as, while, whereas
Sometimes an adverb can function as a subordinating conjunction.
Examples: until, after, before
What are prepositions?
Prepositions are a class of words that work with nouns/pronouns and articles to form phrases that modify verbs, nouns/pronouns, and adjectives.
● Sarah ran up the stairs of the house.