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1

What is a participle?

A form of a verb that can be used as an ADJECTIVE or combined with auxiliaries to form different tenses.

2

What is a PARTICIPIAL PHRASE, and how does it function in a sentence? 

participial phrases are phrases that look like a verb, but actually functions as an adjection, modifying a noun in a sentence.

Walking down the street, he saw a bookstore and went in.

3

Identify the participial phrase and the function it's performing in... 

The text, written in French, was later translated into English.

WRITTEN IN FRENCH

ADJECTIVE

4

Identify the fault and the fix:

Walking down the street, he went into a store.

 

Mind the tenses—these actions are supposed to be sequential, not simultaneous (as implied). 

▪ Walking down the street, he saw a store and he went in.

▪ He walked down the street and went into a store.

5

Identify the fault and the fix:

Racing for the bus, she jumped on just before it pulled away.

Mind the tenses—the sentence needs to be rewritten to make the actions sequential, not simultaneous (as implied). 

▪ She raced for the bus and then jumped on just before it pulled away.

▪ Racing for the bus, she was able to catch it. She jumped on just before it pulled

away.

6

What is the #1 pitfall of participial phrases?

The tenses. Pay close attention to agreement between the phrase and the rest of the sentence. 

Racing for the bus, she jumped on just before it pulled away.

This doesn’t work because she can’t be racing at the same time as she jumped.

Possible fixes:

▪ She raced for the bus and then jumped on just before it pulled away. ▪ Racing for the bus, she was able to catch it. She jumped on just before it pulled away.

7

Find the fault and propose the fix: 

Racing for the bus, she jumped on just before it pulled away.

This doesn’t work because she can’t be racing at the same time as she jumped.

Possible fixes:

▪ She raced for the bus and then jumped on just before it pulled away.

▪ Racing for the bus, she was able to catch it. She jumped on just before it pulled away.

8

How do you determine whether a participle is dangling?

Look at what it's actually modifying. If it's got nothing to modify, then it's dangling!

Walking down the street, there was a bookstore.

Running to answer the phone, the rug slipped and I fell.

9

Fix this dangler:

I saw a shark snorkeling.

Snorkeling, I saw a shark. 

10

Placement of a phrase in a sentence tells us a lot about what?

What it's modifying. 

11

What type of phrases are frequently misplaced?

prepositional phrases

We heard that Bob was married during his last visit.

“I shot an elephant in my pajamas. What he was doing in my pajamas, I’ll never know.”

—Groucho Marx

12

Where should adverbs be placed?

closest to the word it's modifying (for clarity)

  • Dale only dated Chris after high school. (They didn’t date until after high school.)
  • Dale dated only Chris after high school. (Dale didn’t date anyone else after high school.)

13

Which adverbs present to greatest pitfalls?

Limiting adverbs--eg, only, rarely, ... 

14

What is the issue here and what is it an example of?

"Children who laugh rarely are shy."

SQUINTING MODIFIER: when it's ambiguous what the adverb modifies; it seems to modify both the words before and after. 

 

15

All pronouns must have an...

ANTECEDENT

Think of the antecedent as the PARENT of the pronoun.

Jen gave Robert her pen.

16

Reflexive pronouns--myself, yourself, herself—do what?

Refer back to other pronouns.

17

What is a run-on sentence?

The stringing together of thoughts that do not need to be linked together in a sentence.

He went to the mall and he ate some nachos and he bought new socks.

Don't use and or other conjunctions to link clauses unless they are clearly and necessarily related.

18

What is parallelism?

The structural and grammatical balance—symmetry—between like elements in a sentence.

It's about making sure that like elements—coordinated by conjunctions or punctuation—match up. 

 

19

Where to look for parallel construction?

Keep an eye on COMPOUNDS joined by coordinating conjunctions or coordinating punctuation (commas).

  • compound subjects
  • compound predicates
  • compound sentences

Also, keep an eye on LISTS (bulleted or otherwise)

 

20

Find the fault, and fix it:

The babysitter’s responsibilities included making dinner for the kids and to put them in bed.

  • "making dinner" and "to put them"
  • "making" and "putting"

21

Find the fault, and fix it:

Do you think I should go to the movies or that I should just stay home?

"That"—use it in both places or neither.

22

Find the fault, and fix it:

John wants to either go to Hawaii or to go to Aspen.

placement of "either"

John wants to go either to Hawaii or to Aspen

23

Use parallel construction for sentence elements and ...

LISTS

Lists, whether within a sentence or separated (as w bullets), need to be parallel.

24

Find the fault, and fix it:

Some of Kenny’s duties include ringing up purchases, cleanliness of store shelves, and greeting customers.

Lists must be PARALLEL. 

Need gerunds throughout.

ringing up..., cleaning, and greeting

25

What is the difference between the FUTURE and CONDITIONAL tenses?

FUTURE conveys (more) certainty about outcomes: I will...

CONDITIONAL conveys doubt or wish. It is SPECULATIVE and is therefore paired with the SUBJUNCTIVE!

26

What does the subjunctive mood resemble for most verbs?

The simple past tense.

Simple Past: I was, you were, he was

Subjunctive: I were, you were, he was

27

The subjunctive is used for what kinds of situations?

  • situations that are UNCERTAIN, UNREALISTIC, OR A WISH
    • If I were a rich man...
    • If I were to win the lottery, I would buy you a house.
  • but
    • If I was rude, I am sorry.

28

Name 5 of the most common model auxiliaries:

  • would
  • could
  • should
  • might
  • must

29

What do all MODEL AUXILIARIES need?

a verb to help!

I WOULD LIKE some cake.

COULD you GIVE me the book?

30

Neither the sisters nor their brother [deserve, deserves] to inherit their parents' estate.

deserves

  • When the correlative conjunction neither/nor joins mixed subjects (one plural, one singular), make the verb agree with the nearer subject