Name the 5 KEY FEATURES of verbs
person, number, tense, mood, regular/irregular
Verbs convey two things. What are they?
actions (dance, sing, eat) and states of being (is, become, seem)
To CONJUGATE is to...
list the inflected forms of a verb according to person, number, and tense
What do STATE OF BEING verbs do?
LINK the subject to the rest of the sentence.
STATE OF BEING verbs sometimes perform what other function?
serve as HELPING VERBS for action verbs
- She WAS DANCING (past progressive tense of "to dance")
What is another term for STATE OF BEING verbs?
What do linking verbs connect?
They connect of SUBJECT of a sentence with words that either (1) DESCRIBE it (adjectives), or (2) words that RENAME it (nouns).
- She is pretty
- She is a doctor
The SUBJECT of a sentence must match the VERB in...
person and number
What is an INFINITIVE?
the uninflected (unconjugated) for of a verb
Define verb tense
the time of the action
What does a VERB TENSE tell us
- when, i.e., whether the action takes place in the PAST, PRESENT, or FUTURE
- whether the actions is ONGOING or a ONE-TIME EVENT
Which conjugation should copy editors be most on guard for in regular verbs?
third person singular
I dance, you dance, HE DANCES, etc.
What tense do you use to express an action that is ONGOING in the PRESENT?
The present progressive express an action that is IN PROGRESS
He IS DANCING
How is the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE tense formed
by combining the appropriate form of the verb "to be" with the PRESENT PARTICIPLE
the verb is made up of the combined two words
Fred and Ginger ARE DANCING on the ship
How is the present participle formed?
by attaching -ING to a verb's unconjugated form
What is the difference between a PARTICIPLE and a GERUND. Give an example of each using the verb "to dance."
Participles function as VERBS. Gerunds function as NOUNS
She is DANCING (present participle)
Dancing is good exercise (gerund)
How is the SIMPLE PAST formed?
By adding -ed to regular verbs
Identify the verb tense in the sentence "He was dancing."
How is the PAST PROGRESSIVE tense formed?
with the appropriate past tense form of the verb "to be" plus the PRESENT PARTICIPLE
He was dancing.
What is the difference between the SIMPLE PAST (I danced) and the PAST PROGRESSIVE (I was dancing)?
The simple past is a broader statement, while the past progressive describes the action IN PROGRESS at some particular time or time period in the past.
In general, the difference between simple and progressive tense comes down to the GENERAL vs the SPECIFIC.
"Will" is an example of what type of word?
a MODEL AUXILIARY
What is a MODEL AUXILIARY?
A class of words that work with other verbs to express certain qualities, for instance
WILL (used to express probability or likelihood)
What does the FUTURE PROGRESSIVE tense express?
action that is ONGOING IN THE FUTURE
He WILL BE DANCING.
How is the FUTURE PERFECT formed?
auxiliary verb "will" or "shall" + have + past participle
He will have danced.
The conditional tense is used in what circumstances?
When something is dependent on something else--a condition.
Frequenly used in a sentence with an "if" clause, e.g...
If I won the lottery, I WOULD buy you a new car.
Name the MODEL AUXILIARY required by the conditional tense?
Name 5 MODEL AUXILIARIES, and identify the purpose they serve.
may, might, could, should, must
they all modify the sense of the verb to indicate things like permission, possibility, or obligation
How are all the PERFECT TENSES formed?
auxiliary/helping verb (to have) + past participle of the verb
How are past participles formed for regular verbs?
What does the present perfect express?
An action that is complete as it is being discussed in the present.
It is used to discuss the past from the point of view of the present.
I have finished my homework