Q&A Thorax and Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Q&A Thorax and Abdomen Deck (410)
1

What are the two major parts of a typical vertebra?

Body and arch

2

What is an intervertebral foramen?

Opening between adjacent vertebrae allowing passage of the spinal nn.

3

How do ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae?

Head articulates with bodies of contiguous vertebrae and the tubercle articulates with the transverse process of same numbered

4

What is the name of the space between two adjacent ribs?

Intercostal space (ICS)

5

What do the costal cartilages of the last sternal and all asternal ribs form?

Costal arch

6

What are the first and last sternebrae?

Manubrium and xiphoid, respectively

7

What caps the xiphoid process?

Xiphoid cartilage

8

what thoracic vertebrae usually has the most vertically oriented spine?

Anticlinal vertebrae, usually T11 in dog

9

How is inspiration accomplished?

Increased size of thorax decreases pressure = air rushes in

10

What is the main respiratory muscle?

Diaphragm

11

Name the 2 muscles extending between adjacent ribs.

External and internal intercostal mm.

12

What is the opening into the thorax?

Thoracic inlet

13

What forms the thoracic inlet?

1st thoracic vertebra, right and left 1st ribs and sternum

14

What palpable structure is formed by the costal cartilages of the false ribs?

Costal arch

15

What divides the thorax into two spaces?

Mediastinum

16

Where is the heart located in the thoracic cavity?

(2nd) 3rd to (5th) 6th intercostal space (ICS) in the bottom 2/3rds of the cavity

17

Which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally cross?

Right side of the aortic arch

18

What covers the trachea in the cranial neck?

Only strap muscles (sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm)

19

What part of the trachea splits into right and left primary bronchi?

Tracheal biforcation

20

What separates lobes of the lungs?

Interlobar fissures

21

What is the opening between the lobes of the lung where the surgeon's pericardium comes in contact with the thoracic wall?

Cardiac notch

22

What do radiologists call the pulmonary trunk?

Main pulmonary artery/segment, MPA

23

What is the mediastinum?

Space or wall (depending on text read, wall makes parietal work for the pleura) separating the thoracic cavity into 2 cavities and thus, separating the 2 pleural cavities

24

What are the divisions of the mediastinum?

Cranial, middle (contains heart), and caudal (all divided into dorsal and ventral parts)

25

List the parts of the pericardium.

Fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium (visceral and parietal parts)

26

What is located in the pericardial cavity?

scant amount of serous fluid only

27

which side of the heart is part of the pulmonary circulation?

Right side: pulmonary side

28

The left side of the heart is part of what circulation and why?

Systemic circulation, pumps blood to body

29

What side of the heart is the right ventricle on? Left ventricle?

Right: cranial (right, cranial, and left sides); left: caudal

30

What is the vestigial, fetal connection form the pulmonary trunk to the aorta?

Ligamentum arteriosum

31

What is the most caudoventral part of the heart? Is it on the right or left?

Apex, left

32

What is the adult remnant of the fetal foramen ovale?

Fossa ovale

33

What separates the atria?

Interatrial septum

34

Name the wall separating the 2 ventricles.

Interventricular (IV) septum

35

Which ventricle has a thinner wall and why?

Right, less strength needed to reach lungs

36

Name the three layers of the heart.

Endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium

37

What are the valves of the heart?

Right and left atrioventricular (AV); aortic and pulmonic valves (semilunar valves)

38

What is the function of the AV valves?

Prevent back flow into the atria during ventricular contraction

39

What is the function of the semilunar valves?

Prevent return to heart during diastole

40

What abnormal sounds are caused by blood flow turbulence in the heart?

Murmurs

41

What are the three parts of the conduction system of the heart?

Sinoatrial node (SA) (pacemaker), atrioventricular (AV) node, and atrioventricular bundle branches

42

What is the term for ventricular contraction and relaxation?

Ventricular systole, ventricular diastole

43

How do diastole and systole relate to the heart sounds?

Systole: between 1st and 2nd sounds, Diastole: between 2nd and 1st heart sounds

44

What do the 1st and 2nd hearts sounds sound like and roughly represent?

1st ("lub"): closure of AV valves (start of systole),2nd ("dub"): closure of semilunar valve (diastole)

45

What causes closure and opening of the AV and semilunar valves?

Opening: AV: diastole; Semilunar: systole. -Closure: AV: systole; Semilunar: diastole

46

What does the recoil of the elastic aorta at the end of systole cause?

Pushes blood to body and back toward the heart, closing aortic valve and filling the coronary arteries

47

How is the esophagus normally related to the arch of the aorta?

To the right of the arch or aorta

48

What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face?

Common carotid aa.

49

What artery travels on the floor of the thorax?

Internal thoracic a.

50

What vessels and nerves travel in the intercostal spaces caudal to the ribs?

Intercostal a., v., and n.

51

What three fetal structures bypass the lungs and liver?

Ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale

52

Where does the ductus arteriosus shunt most of the blood in the right ventricle from the pulmonary to the systemic circulation?

From the pulmonary trunk and aorta (2 aa.)

53

What in the adult is a remnant of the following structures? Ductus arteriosus, Foramen ovale,Umbilical arteries, Umbilical veins

Ductus arteriosus--ligamentum arteriosum; Foramen ovale--oval fossa or fossa oval; Umbilical arteries--round ligaments of urinary bladder;Umbilical veins--round ligament of liver

54

What is the large lymphatic channel draining the caudal animal?

Thoracic duct (from abdomen, pelvis, and pelvic limb)

55

What lymph nodes are near the bifurcation of the trachea?

Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

56

What is the lymphatic structure in the cranial mediastinum?

Cranial mediastinal lymph node

57

What is the large nerve crossing the heart to the diaphragm?

Phrenic n.

58

What is the branch of the vagus that returns to the neck? Where is it located in the thorax on the left and right sides?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve; Lt: around the arch of the aorta, Rt: around right subclavian artery

59

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate? Which is clinically important in dogs and horses with laryngeal paralysis?

Most laryngeal skeletal muscles; Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.

60

What supplies cutaneous innervation to the top of the thoracic and abdominal walls?

Both the dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nn. in the thoracic and lumbar region

61

What is the parasympathetic innervation to the thorax?

Vagus nerve

62

What are the two series of connected ganglia lying on either side of the bodies of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and longus colli muscle?

Sympahtetic trunk (chain)

63

Which way do the motor fibers travel in the vagosympathetic trunk?

Sympathetic toward the head, vagus away from the head

64

What is a serosa (serous membrane)?

A thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity and covering the cavity's organs

65

What are the serous membranes of the pericardial cavity, thorax, abdomen, and spermatic cord called respectively?

Pericardial: pericardium; Thorax: pleura; Abdomen: peritoneum; Spermatic cord: vaginal tunics

66

What serosa covers walls of a cavity?

Parietal serosa

67

What serosa covers an organ?

Visceral serosa

68

What connects parietal and visceral or visceral with visceral serosa?

Connecting serosa

69

What is the serosa lining the thoracic cavity?

Pleura

70

Are the lungs located in the pleural cavities?

No, just a scant amount of serous fluid

71

What is the line of pleural reflection?

Point costal pleura reflects onto diaphragm

72

What is the plural cupula?

Cranial pleural sac extending out through the thoracic inlet

73

How should VD/DV and lateral films be placed on viewing screen?

DV/VD: Right side to you left in both; Lateral: Cranial side to the left

74

What does a R or L marker on different film views indicate?

Lateral trunk: right or left lateral=side on cassette

75

Lateral trunk (thorax or abdomen), DV or VD films, One limb in film

DV or VD: side of animal, one limb: limb in film

76

How are thoracic films evaluated for rotation?

Lateral: costochondral junctions and shoulder joints-same level, -VD and DV: sternum and spinal column superimposed

77

What structure is used to tell an expiratory from an inspiratory film?

Position of diaphragm

78

Once you have picked a method to evaluate films, what should you do each time you evaluate a film?

Always read in the same manner (every time!)-get into a routine

79

What is the cranial limit of the abdomen?

Diaphragm

80

Can you visualize the sides of the diaphragm?

Cranial: yes as contrasted air (lungs); Caudal: no, against water densities (liver and stomach)

81

What is the junction between the two crura?

Intercrural cleft

82

What mediastinal structures are normally seen in the lateral view?

Trachea, aorta, heart in the pericardium, caudal vena cava

83

What mediastinal structures can be seen the VD view?

Heart in the pericardium, caudal vena cava, left edge of the descending aorta

84

Is the esophagus usually visible on radiograph? When is it visible?

No, only if it contains swallowed air or contrast material

85

What is the thick dark line in lateral radiograph of the cranial mediastinum?

Trachea

86

What is the dark oval over the heart base in a lateral radiograph?

Tracheal bifurcation, "carina"

87

The trachea normally makes a _____ angle to the vertebral column in a lateral view.

15 degrees

88

Which way does a megaesophagus displace the trachea and heart?

Ventrally

89

Name a dilation of caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus.

Megaesophagus.

90

What is the line caused by the air in a megaesophagus and air in trachea contrasting the adjacent walls of the two structures?

Tracheal-esophageal stripe.

91

What is the name for the VD appearance of a megaesophagus as it passes caudally to the diaphragm?

Esophageal cone

92

What are the 2 continuations of the trachea into the lungs?

Main stem bronchi or primary bronchi

93

Which is the most ventral (dependent/handing down) of the bronchi?

Right middle bronchus

94

What are the normal longitudinal water densities in the lungs?

Pulmonary vessels, not bronchi

95

What is a lobar bronchus and associated lobar pulmonary artery and vein?

Pulmonary triad

96

What is the normal relative size of the artery and vein of a pulmonary triad?

About the same size

97

Veins are always ______ and _______ (______) to the arteries of pulmonary triads in the lateral and DV views respectively.

Ventral and Central (medial)

98

In the DV/VD films, what is the position of the lobar arteries to the caudal lungs?

4 and 8 o'clock positions

99

What conditions will result in visible lung fissures (lobular pattern)?

Collapsed lungs or pleural fluid and pleural thickenings

100

How many left lung lobes are there anatomically and radiographically?

Anatomically - 2; Radiographically - 3

101

The cranial lobe of the _______ lung is seen in front of the cranial lobe of the _______ lung on a lateral view as a separate round air filled structure.

Left, right

102

What is located in the normal pleural space?

only a little fluid

103

What is the cranial extent of the pleural cavity?

Pleural cupula

104

The pleural cupula normally extends cranially past the _____ ______.

First rib

105

What is located between the vessels of the lungs?

Interstitium, parenchyma

106

For what should the parenchyma of the lungs be evaluated?

Increase (more radiopaque) or decrease (more radiolucent) opacity

107

Why don't you see the chambers of the heart in survey radiographs?

Heart is muscle, chambers filled with blood (both water densities)

108

Since you can't see the chambers of the heart in survey radiographs how do you evaluate the heart?

Evaluate the borders or silhouette

109

What are the lateral radiographic location of the different compartments of the heart listed below :1.right ventricle;2.left ventricle 3.caudal heart

1:descending aorta 2.dorsal thorax-well seen 3.lower part of cranial edge

110

What is usually all that can be seen of the cranial vena cava in the lateral projection?

ventral edge

111

Tell if the structures are seen and where they are located in a DV/VD view: 1.Caudal vena cava 2.Right ventricle 3.Pulmonary trunk 4.Left ventricle 5.Apex 6.Descending aorta

1.Caudal vena cava: yes; right side, heart to diaphragm 2.Right ventricle: yes; right side of heart, 3.Pulmonary trunk: yes; cranial/left side of heart; 4.Left ventricle:yes; caudal half of heart Left ventricle:yes; caudal half of heart 5.Apex: yes; pointing to left 6.Descending aorta: yes; left lateral edge

112

On what side of a DV view is the caudal vena cava seen? VD view?

right, right

113

What part of the DV silhouette does the right ventricle make up?

Right side from apex around cranial side to cranial left side

114

The left atrium is over the _______ heart directly above the left ventricle. It is located just caudal to the _______ _______.

Caudal, tracheal bifurcation

115

On what side of the heart is the apex, a radiographic landmark, located?

Left

116

How does the descendign aorta appear in a DV view?

A line to left=left edge of aorta

117

What is the normal amount of sternal contact of the heart?

3 sternebrae (rule of thumb)

118

What is found on the VD/DV and lateral views at each time area according to the clock faced analogy? 1. 2-6 o'clock 2. 5 o'clock 3.6-9 o'clock

1.Left ventricle 2.Apex 3.Right ventricle

119

What is found on the VD/DV at the 1-2 o'clock position on the clock faced analogy?

MPA/pulmonary trunk

120

List some problems needing thoracic radiographs.

Cough, heart problems, dyspnea, abnormal lung sounds, etc.

121

What is a radiographic indication of a diaphragmatic hernia?

Entire diaphragm can't be seen

122

When are the mediastinal lymph nodes visible?

When enlarged (i.e. lymphosarcoma, common in cats)

123

What is moving of the mediastinum to the right or left?

Mediastinal shift

124

What is the common term for bowing of the principal bronchi in VD and DV views?

Cowboy legs

125

Fluid or air in the pleural space will eliminate the _______ pressure of the space and cause the lungs to collapse away from the chest wall.

Negative

126

What is excess fluid in the pleural space?

Pleural effusions

127

What is the main radiographic sign of pleural effusion?

Separation of lungs and body wall allowing visualization of lugn borders and fissure lines

128

What are the 4 basic opaque lung patterns?

Interstitial, alveolar, peribronchiolar and vascular

129

What characterizes each of the opaque lung patterns?

interstitial: opaque lung, "fuzzy"; -Alveolar: air bronchogram; -Peribronchiolar: "donuts and tram lines"- Vascular: increased, decreased, or normal

130

What is the number one cause of an interstitial pattern?

expiratory film (normal)

131

Give two signs of a peribronchiolar pattern.

Perivascular cuffing; donuts ;tram lines

132

What should be the first thing that comes to mind when enlarged arteries of the lungs are seen?

Heart worm diease

133

What is fluid in the lungs?

Pulmonary edema

134

The increased radiographic opacity of pulmonary edema can be either a ______ or ______ pattern or both depending on where the fluid is.

Interstitial or alveolar

135

What is the mechanism of cardiogenic pulmonary edema?

Left heart failure backing up into lungs

136

Right ventricular enlargement is seen as a ______ bulging on the lateral view. This will cause the heart to have more ______ _______.

Cranial; sternal contact

137

On VD view, right ventricular enlargement will bulge to the right. How is this shape often referred to?

Backwards or reverse "D"

138

Give a cause of right ventricular enlargement.

Pulmonic stenosis and heart worm disease

139

What is a common radiographic finding of right ventricular enlargement on a lateral projection.

Increased sternal contact

140

What is a common finding of right ventricle enlargement on the DV projection?

Reversed "D" sign

141

What clinical condition should you think of if you see tortuous, dilated pulmonary arteries?

Heart worm disease

142

What are the three bumps seen on a DV view of a dog with PDA?

MPA, left auricle and aorta

143

What is a possible effect on the main stem bronchi in left atrial enlargement in a VD film?

Spread out ("cowboy legs")

144

List two most common findings of left atrial enlargement in the DV projection.

Auricle projects at 2-3 o'clock position; "cowboy legs"

145

What is the reflex arch for the panniculus response?

Sensation from skin of trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal nn. to spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic n., out to cutaneous trunci m.

146

What is used clinically to evaluate the level of thoracic spinal cord damage?

Panniculus response

147

If the spinal cord damage is at the level of T10, where will the panniculus response not elicit a response?

Level of the 12th thoracic vertebra caudally. (segment 2 vertebrae cranial to level of skin because nerves pass caudoventrally)

148

What is the surgical opening of the thoracic cavity?

Thoracotomy

149

How is the vacuum of the pleural cavity regained when closing the thoracic wall?

Maximally inflate the lungs during last part of closure

150

Where is the intercostal space incised to open the thorax and why?

In center to avoid the vessels caudal to ribs

151

What vessels are of concern in midsternal thoracotomies?

Internal thoracic artery and vein

152

What is the term for segmental fractures of a number of sequential ribs causing the chest wall to move in during inspiration?

Flail chest

153

What is aspiration pneumonia?

Swallowing foreign material into the lungs and subsequent pneumonia

154

Which lobe is the most common site for aspiration pneumonia? What is the second most common lung lobe?

Right middle lobe (most dependent); cranial right lung lobe

155

To which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn), which moves by air flow and not gravity, tend to go?

Right caudal lobe, straight shot

156

What is chylothorax?

Lymph in the pleural cavity usually from a ruptured lymphatic vessel (thoracic duct)

157

What are three common locations of clinical blockage of the esophagus in the thorax?

Thoracic inlet, base of heart, esophageal hiatus of diaphragm (start of esophagus)

158

What is air in the mediastinum/

Pneumomediastinum

159

What is the surgeon's pericardium?

Sac opened to access epicardial covered heart

160

What is compression of the heart due to collection of blood or fluid in the pericardial sac?

Cardiac tamponade

161

What is done with the pericardium after open heart surgery?

Left unsutured or only loosely approximated ot avoid cardiac tamponade

162

Where does blood back up into when the right heart is damaged (clinical signs)?

Body (venae cavae (cranial and caudal)-ascites, jugular pulse)

163

What is ascites? What causes it?

Fluid in abdomen, caused by right heart failure

164

Where does blood back up into in left heart failure?

Lungs

165

What are cardiomyopathies?

Progressive cardiac disease

166

What is inflammation of the heart muscle?

Myocarditis

167

What parasite may reside in the right ventricle of the dog's heart?

Heartworms (dirofilariasis): adult round worms (nematodes-Dirofilaria immitis)

168

What is the normal blood pressure of the dog?

120/80

169

Define PRAA (Persistent right aortic arch).

Right instead of left 4th aortic arch becomes the aorta resulting in entrapment of the esophagus

170

What structures constrict the esophagus in a persistent right aortic arch?

Aorta, ligamentum arteriosum, pulmonary trunk, and base of heart

171

What is a clinical sign of a persistent right aortic arch?

Regurgitates undigested food when weaned to solid food as large particles can't get past this constriction

172

The constriction due to a persistent right aortic arch causes food to be stopped and the esophagus to balloon cranial to the ______ ____ ______.

Base of heart

173

How is a persistent right aortic arch treated?

Ligamentum arteriosum surgically isolated, ligated twice and cut between 2 ligatures

174

What is the difference between a congenital and a hereditary defect?

Congenital: present at birth, can be due to hereditary or environmental causes. Hereditary: passed on to offspring, may or may not be present at birth

175

What is a PDA?

Patent ductus arteriosus, a failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (arterial duct) to close

176

What causes a washing machine murmur, and why?

PDA, continuous, thus, systolic and diastolic

177

How is a PDA treated?

Ends are tied off and cut between them if caught early

178

What would happen if a reversed PDA was tied off?

Blow out lungs, pressure above left ventricle

179

List the developmental anomalies making up Tetralogy of Fallot.

Pulmonic stenosis, overriding aorta, VSD, hypertrophy of right ventricle

180

What does cyanosis mean?

Bluish discoloration of tissues due to poor oxygenation

181

What are the three bumps seen on a DV view of a dog with PDA?

MPA, left auricle, and aorta

182

Of what is a patent ductus venosus an example?

Portosystemic shunt (bypasses liver)

183

What causes the sound heard as a heart murmur?

Blood flow turbulence

184

What are the two types of murmurs related to location heart cycle?

Diastolic or systolic murmurs

185

What causes valvular murmurs?

Leaky (insufficient) or narrowed (stenotic) valves

186

What could cause a systolic murmur?

Semilunar (aortic or pulmonic) stenosis, insufficiency (Left>right AV)

187

What can cause a diastolic murmur?

Semiliunar (aortic or pulmonic) insufficiency; or AV stenosis (very rare)

188

What is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection?

Demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity

189

What is pleurocentesis/thoracocentesis?

Surgical puncture of the chest wall for drainage of fluid

190

Where is thoracocentesis done?

Middle of the 7th-8th intercostal space just dorsal to the costochondral junction

191

How can the pleural cupula be clinically important?

Can open the pleural cavity with and incision near the thoracic inlet

192

What is the term for inflammation of the pleura?

Pleuritis

193

Why is pneumothorax or pyothorax usually bilateral in carnivores?

Mediastinum is fenestrated (holes)

194

What is hyaline membrane disease?

Premature parturition before the lungs mature with insufficient surfactant produced

195

What is air or gas, pus or chyle in the pleural space?

Pneumothorax, pyothorax, chylothorax

196

In what could a tear in the thoracic part of the trachea result?

Pneumomediastinum

197

How can infections of the neck migrate to the thorax?

Down the deep fascia to the endothoracic fascia

198

What is the normal respiratory rate for dogs? Cats?

Dogs: 20 breaths/min; Cats: 25/min

199

How do the olecranon and the intercostal spaces relate when standing?

Olecranon at the 5th intercostal space or 5th rib

200

How far cranially does the dome of the diaphragm extend?

6th intercostal space just behind the olecranon/heart

201

Where is the heart located in relationship to the intercostal spaces and the arm muscles?

Between 2(3)-5(6) intercostal space, mostly under muscles

202

What is a memory aid for the heart valve's point of maximum intensity?

PAM 345, right AV: low 5th right

203

Outline how you auscultate the heart with a stethoscope.

1st locate the point of elbow (5th ICS), find Lt. AV: 5th ICS, move 1 ICS cranial and up; aortic, then 1 ICS cranial and up: pulmonic

204

What vessels should be considered when opening the thorax? How?

Internal thoracic aa. on thoracic floor of the thorax (don't cut near sternum); intercostal vessels and nn.: caudal to rib (cut in center of intercostal spaces)

205

Describe the cavity entered when inserting a needle to either side of the line of pleural reflection.

Craniodorsal=thorax 1st; caaudoventral=abdomen

206

Where is the basal border of the lung?

Roughly 1-2" craniodorsal to and parallel to the line of pleural reflection

207

What are the boundaries of the auxcultation triangle?

Cranial: caudal border of the triceps brachii m.; -dorsal: epaxial mm.; caudoventral: curved line from olecranon to next to the last dorsal intercostal space

208

Generally in relationship to what structure is a lung biopsy performed?

Craniodorsal to the basal border of the lung

209

How is cardiocentesis performed?

Into 5th ICS (intercostal space) (behind elbow) into palpated heartbeat

210

What is the location for thoracocentesis?

7th-8th ICS (intercostal space) at intercostal space level of the olecranon on right

211

what are the four quadrants of the abdomen?

right and left cranial, right and left caudal

212

what is the lateral part of the middle region of the abdomen?

flank

213

what are the inguinal regions?

lateral abdominal area next to the junction with thigh

214

what is the dorsal part of the flank region?

paralumbar fossa

215

where is the fundus of the stomach located?

left cranial/dorsal abdomen

216

how many mammar are generally present in the *****? cat?

usually 10 in dog, 8 in cat and small dogs

217

what are extra mammary glands called?

supernumerary mammary glands

218

generally where do the mammary glands lymphatics drain?

caudal: superficial inguinal ln.; cranial: to axillary ln (also accessory axillary if present sternal)

219

list the abdominal muscles from superficial to deep

external abdominal oblique (EAO), internal abdominal oblique (IAO), transverse abdominus, rectus abdominis (ventrally)

220

what is a flat thin tendon called?

aponeurosis

221

what is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas muscle to the prepubic tendon?

inguinal ligament

222

what is the rectus sheath?

aponeuroses of the abdominal mm. around the rectus abdominis m., meet/fuse at the linea alba

223

which rectus sheath is most clinically important?

external rectus sheath

224

what passes through the openings of the diaphragm?

aortic: aorta, azygous, cisterna chyli/thoracic duct; Esophageal: esophagus, dorsal and ventral vagal trunks, Caval foramen: caudal vena cava

225

what is the motor nerve of the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve (somatic)

226

how does the cavity of the bony thorax relate to the thoracic cavity?

larger, dome of diaphragm extends into bony thorax to 6th intercostal space (encases abdomen)

227

what is the intrathoracic part of the abdominal cavity?

cranial part, protected by caudal ribs and costal cartilages

228

what is a directional terms for a part further from and closer to the mouth?

further: abroad, closer: orad

229

What are the two named curvatures of the stomach?

Greater and lesser curvature

230

What is the muscular sphincter surrounding the stomach's outflow?

Pylorus

231

List the parts of the stomach

Cardia, fundus, body, pylorus (pyloric antrim, pylorus, pyloric opening)

232

What is the least vascular part if the stomach?

Body between two curvatures

233

On which sides of the animal is the pylorus? The fundus?

Pylorus: right (as duodenum) and ventral, fundusvleft and dorsal

234

Which is more ventral the fundus or the pylorus of the stomach?

Pylorus

235

the descending duodenum is on what side of the abdomen?

right

236

list the parts of the small and large intestine?

small: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
large: cecum, colon (ascending, transverse, descending), rectum, and anal canal

237

on what side is the cecum located?

right side

238

to what are species differences in the large intestine due?

modification of the ascending colon

239

what is the opening of the ileum into the colon (not cecum)?

ileocolic (ileal) opening (orifice)

240

what is the course of the transverse colon in all domestic species?

right to left cranial to root of mesentery

241

on which side of the animal is the descending colon?

left, often called the left colon

242

where do the anal sacs open in the anal canal?

4 and 8 o'clock positions

243

where is the liver located?

cranial abdomen abutting diaphragm, almost completely intrathoracic

244

the renal impression is in which liver lobe? which side of liver?

caudate lobe (caudate process), right

245

what ligament attaches the liver to the stomach?

lesser omentum

246

the (common) bile duct enters the duodenum at the _____ along with the __________ duct

major duodenal papillae
-pancreatic duct

247

list the parts of the pancreas and their locations

right limb: mesoduodenum, body: near pylorus; left limb: deep leaf greater omentum

248

where is the dorsal end of spleen located? ventral?

dorsal: on left (fixated to greater curvature)
ventral: variable

249

what is the elongated area of the spleen where vessels enter?

hilus

250

which arteries pass from the spleen to the fundus of the stomach?

short gastric aa.

251

what is an easy way to remember which kidney is more cranial or caudal?

right in renal impression of liver, or left is left behind

252

what is the expanded proximal end of ureters?

renal pelvis

253

where does urine drip from the kidney?

renal crest

254

which specie has capsular veins on the outside of its kidneys?

cat

255

what parts of the renal pelvis surround the pseudopapillae?

pelvic recesses/diverticulae

256

how do the ureters pass through the bladder wall and why?

oblique angle to prevent back flow

257

where is the trigone of the urinary bladder?

dorsal internal area between the two ureteral openings and opening of the urethra

258

what is a serous membrane?

a thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity of the obdy and covering its organs

259

name the serous membranes of the pericardium, thorax, abdomen, and vaginal process

serous pericardium; pleura; peritoneum; vaginal tunic

260

what serous membrane covers the walls of a cavity?

parietal (parietal means wall)

261

what serous membrane or serosa covers an organ?

visceral peritoneum (often just called serosa or peritoneum)

262

what serous membrane connects parietal and visceral or visceral with visceral serosa?

connecting

263

list three different types of peritoneum.

parietal, visceral, and connecting

264

list three or four types of connecting peritoneum

mesenteries, omenta, ligaments and folds

265

what peritoneum connects the liver and the ventral abdominal wall?

falciform ligamet

266

how many layers are in the different classifications of peritoneum?

parietal and visceral-1; connecting-2

267

what is the peritoneal cavity?

potential space between parietal and visceral peritoneum

268

what does retroperitoneal mean?

behind peritoneum

269

what are the two layers of the greater omentum?

superficial and deep leaves

270

what is the opening into the omental bursa from the peritoneal cavity?

epiploic (omental) foramen

271

how are mesenteries named?

meso + organ connected

272

what is the root of the mesentery?

attachment of the mesentery to the dorsal abdomen

273

name the 3 main unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta?

celiac a, cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries

274

what do the celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries supply?

viscera drained by portal vein

275

what are the three branches of the celiac artery?

hepatic, splenic, and left gastric

276

how do the jejunal arteries terminate to supply the jejunum?

form arcades and vasa recti to jejunum

277

what vessels supply the fundus of the stomach?

short gastric arteries from splenic artery

278

how are the ovarian arteries located?

lift up ovary and look for vessels in mesovarium

279

how are testicular arteries located in the abdomen?

passing caudal to kidney to vaginal ring

280

what vein carries the blood from the abdominal viscera to the liver?

portal vein (hepatic portal vein)

281

what are the 1˚ abdominal organs not drained by the portal vein?

kidneys, adrenal glands, gonads, liver

282

why aren't the kidneys, adrenals and gonads drained by the portal vein?

their hormones would be destroyed by liver

283

where does the left gonadal vein empty?

into left renal v. instead of crossing aorta to vena cava

284

what lymphatic vessel drains the lymph from cisterna chyli that drains the caudal animal?

thoracic duct

285

to which lymph nodes does lymph drain to from the caudal and cranial mammae?

Ca.: superficial inguinal, Cr.: axillary

286

what are the large lymph nodes beneath the termination of the aorta?

medial iliac lymph nodes

287

what are the intestinal lymphatic vessels that absorb fats?

lacteals

288

what directions do the ventral branches of the spinal nerve travel?

caudoventral direction

289

what supplies cutaneous innervation to the top of the thoracic and abdominal walls?

both the dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nn. in the thoracic and lumbar region

290

where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?

near branches of abdominal aorta

291

what gland is part if the sympathetic ANS?

adrenal glands (medulla)

292

what are standing lateral views using a horizontal beam direction through a standing animal used to detect?

fluid levels in bowel or abdomen

293

on what does peritoneal (serosal) detail depend?

serosal (peritoneal) fat around organs

294

what is the term for an abdomen with an overall gray appearance due to loss of serosal detail?

"ground glass" appearance

295

what is the use of opaque media (positive contrast agents) or gas (negative contrast agent) to delineate portions of the GI tract called?

contrast studies

296

what must always precede all contrast studies?

survey radiographs

297

name one structure that normally is in the left caudal quadrant

descending colon

298

which sides of the diaphragm can be seen in radiographs?

yes: cranial surface (lungs);
no: caudal (water densities against it)

299

where are the parts of the stomach located in VD and lateral films?

fundus VD: left, Lat: dorsal
body: VD: midline (dog), left (cat)
pylorus: DV: right (dog), midline (cat) Lat: ventral

300

where is the air likely to be seen in the stomach of a radiograph taken in right lateral recumbency (right view)? left view?

right: fundus (eft side up, fundus is up), left: pylorus

301

where would gas be expected in the stomach in a DV view? VD?

DV: fundic region (dorsal up), VD: pylorus

302

what is the normal stomachs axis used for clinically?

between lines vertical to spine and parallel to ribs

303

what is the use of air and contrast material within an organ called?

double contrast studies (applied to bladder also)

304

how would you precisely locate a radiopaque foreign body to the stomach?

take 2 radiographs 90˚ to each other (lateral and VD)

305

what does full 360˚ gastric dilation and volvulus look like on a lateral radiograph?

enlarged gas filed stomach with a fold dividing the stomach into dorsal and ventral compartments (fold in volvulus)

306

what is the large distended loop of small intestine, named because they indicate trouble?

sentinel loop

307

what is the shape and location of the cecum in a VD radiograph?

"C" corkscrew shape; right side level of L3, seen only if air filled

308

is the descending colon seen in VD and lateral survey films?

yes if fecal filled

309

what structure may be surmised to be enlarged in lateral radiographs by ventral displacement of the descending coon?

medial iliac lymph nodes

310

linear foreign bodies in the small intestine, such as string, will cause the bowel to ________ __________ on the string due to peristalsis

bunch up, plicated or accordion pleating, very apparent with a contrast study

311

what should you do if you see a string hanging out of either end of a cat or god?

do not pull or it may saw through bunched up bowel (peritinitis). surgically remove

312

in normal adult dogs on an expiratory abdominal radiograph, the liver usually doesn't extend past the _____.

rib

313

how is the stomach axis positioned in a lateral film when there is an enlarged liver?

exceeds angle parallel to ribs

314

why is the cranial pole of the right kidney not visualized in a lateral radiograph?

in renal impression of liver: same density

315

where is the speen seen in VD and lateral radiographs?

VD: triangular water density caudal to stomach on left
Rt, Lat: triangle

316

what causes a focal loss of detail to the right cranial abdomen

pancreatitis

317

what part of the right kidney can't be seen normally?

cranial pole embedded in liver

318

where is the left kidney in relationship to the right kidney?

1/2 kidney length caudal, slightly ventral

319

on what does visualization of the renal borders depend?

amount of perirenal fat present

320

are the ureters visible on survey radiographs?

no

321

what structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?

pelvic diverticula/recesses

322

what is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through the umbilicus?

umbilical hernia

323

what is a direct and indirect inguinal hernia?

direct: explodes directly through the wall
indirect: passes down inguinal canal (scrotal hernia)

324

what is paracentesis?

puncture of peritoneal cavity to remove fluid

325

define a laparotomy or celiotomy incision

an incision opening the abdomen

326

what is done with a falciform ligament that obscures the view of the abdomen?

removed

327

what structures can be visualized through a xiphoid to pubic laparotomy incision without manipulation, and their locations?

cranial: falciform ligament
middle: greater omentum and +- tail of spleen
caudal: bladder

328

where is the spleen located when doing a laparotomy incision? how does this affect your incision?

left side of across midline
tent wall when opening the abdomen

329

what is an incision into the abdomen just off the midline?

paramedian incision (approach)

330

what is the most important layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision?

external rectus sheath

331

what is an abdominal incisio made in the paralumbar fossa?

paralumbar incision, flank incision

332

what must be blocked to anesthetize the paralumbar fossa of the large animal's flank?

both the dorsal and ventral branch's must be blocked

333

what type of restraint is used for small animal surgery?

general anesthesia anesthesia instead of ocal

334

what is a common sequela to peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum)?

adhesions between sheets of peritoneum

335

visualize what is seen through a long midline incision

faciform ligament (cr.), greater omentum, urinary bladder (caudal), and +- spleen

336

must the peritoneum be apposed when closing the ventral midline incision?

no, best to leave it alone

337

why must including the falciform ligament or its fat in the closure of the abdomen be avoided?

lt may delay healing and contribute to wound dehiscence

338

what is the most important structure to close in a midline incision?

linea albe

339

what is a common cause of diaphragmatic hernias?

trauma (cars #1, fights, kicks, falls)

340

how is a diaphragmatic hernia reached surgically?

from abdominal side

341

when opening the abdomen of a dog with diaphragmatic hernia, what must you be prepared to do?

breath for dog, as when the abdomen opened there will be a pneumothorax

342

is the peritoneum opposed when closing the abdomen?

no, less trauma

343

what is wound dehiscence?

separation of layers of a surgical wound

344

what is paracentesis? abdominocentesis/abdominal puncture?

surgical puncture of a cavity for an aspiration of fuid; puncture of abdomen

345

what is a common sequela to inflammation of the peritoneum?

adhesions between sheets of peritoneum

346

where is a gastrotomy performed in the stomach?

through body between curvatures (less blood)

347

what emergency twisting of the stomach occurs in large and giant breed dogs with deep chests, rarely occuring in small dogs?

gastric dilation/volvulus complex, bloat

348

what common problems results in projectile vomiting?

pyloric stenosis/obstruction

349

where is the descending duodenum?

right side

350

what is intussusception?

telescoping of a segment of the intestine into the lumen of an adjacent segment

351

what is an incision into the intestines?

enterotomy

352

what structure identifies and locates the rest of the large and small intestines during an exploratory surgery?

cecum

353

what is the inflammation of the cecum?

typhlitis

354

what is the surgical removal of the cecum?

typhlectomy

355

how are the "abdominal gutters" (paravertebral gutters) visualized?

pull the duodenum and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially, packing off the rest of the viscera.

356

how are plugged anal sacs treated?

manually evacuation (gloved hand holds 4x4 gauze pushed forward cranial to the sacs, squeeze in and pull caudally evacuating sac; or gloved finger in anus, thumb lateral and deep to a sac, squeeze ad withdraw)

357

what must be avoided when surgically removing the anal sac?

external anus sphincters and caudal rectal nerves

358

what are pathological tracts between rectum and skin surrounding anus?

rectucutaneous fistulas

359

what is eversion of the inner rectum through the anus?

rectal prolapse

360

what is the removal of part of the liver?

partial hepatectomy

361

how is a liver biopsy taken in a dog?

laparotomy caudal to the xiphoid process, finger holds the liver in place, biopsy needle through a separate stab incision

362

what is inflammation of the gall bladder?

cholecystitus

363

how is the right limb of the pancreas exposed during exploratory surgery?

retract duodenum ventromedially

364

how is the left lobe of the pancreas exposed surgically?

retract stomach and spleen cranially and transverse colon caudally

365

what is the removal of the spleen?

splenectomy

366

how are the vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?

close to hilus, preserve short gastrics and eft gastroepiploic supply to the stomach

367

what arteries to the stomach come off the splenic artery?

short gastrics and left gastroepiploic arteries

368

how would you locate the adrenal gland during surgery?

phrenicoabdomina v. crosses it ventrally.

369

how do you visualize the kidneys during a laparotomy?

pull the descending colon and its mesocolon or descending duodenum and its mesdoduodenum medially and look in the "abdominal gutter" for left and right kidneys respectivey

370

what is inflammation of the kidney?

nephritis

371

what structure of the renal pelvis shows up in contrast studies of the kidney that can give clues to problems?

pelvic recesses

372

what is the removal of a kidney? what should be checked first?

nephrectomy; check for another kidney

373

what is an incision into the kidney?

nephrotomy

374

what is inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis?

pyelonephritis

375

what is a patent urachus?

persistent urachus from the bladder to umbilicus

376

what is a clinical sign of a patent urachus?

dribbling of urine from the bladder to umbilicus

377

what is an abnormal concentration in any part of the urinary system?

urinary calculi

378

what is FUS (feline urinary syndrome) in tom cat?

urinary tract disease characterized by dysuria and hematuria with or without obstruction

379

what is the common site of urethra obstruction in the tomcat?

penie urethra

380

what is the creation of a permanent opening for the urethra in the perineum, a common treatments for FUS?

urethrostomy

381

what abnormal termination of a ureter some place besides the urinary bladder?

ectopic ureter

382

how is an ectopic ureter corrected?

surgically reimplant ureter obliquely through the bladder wall

383

what is tapping the uriary bladder with a needle to remove urine?

cystocentesis

384

what is surgical opening of the urinary bladder?

cystotomy

385

what is the #1 iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a spay?

ligature or clamp mistakenly applied to ureter

386

what vessles have to be considered when opening in the abdomen?

cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vessels

387

where would you make an incision to open the stomach and why?

between curvatures, less vessels

388

what artery is surgically important in operations of the cecum?

large ceca artery hidden on the dorsal surface

389

what must not be ligated when removing the spleen?

short gastrics and left gastroepiploic arteries or artery supplying them

390

how are vessels ligated during a splenectomy and why?

close to hilus, preserving short gastrics and left gastroepiploic supply to the stomach

391

where is the largest artery (cecal) of the cecum located?

hidden on dorsal side of cecum

392

how is the intestine cut when doing a resection and anastomoses?

"angle cuts toward lesion" (antimesenteric> mesenteric side of removed piece)

393

what arteries should surgeons watch for when doing nephrectomies?

renal arteries: usually singular but double or triple possible

394

what vascular incidence can cause paralysis of the rear limb of cats?

saddle thrombus in caudal aorta, blocking external iliac arteries

395

what is the landmark for finding adrenal glands?

phrenicoabdominal vein over ventral surface

396

what is a portosystemic shunt?

splanchnic (visceral) circulation bypasses normal hepatic system and empties into systemic veins

397

what is the removal of one or more mammary glands?

mastectomy

398

when wouldn't a mastectomy be performed on a mammary tumor?

if distal lung metastasis present already

399

what is a metastasis?

transfer of disease from 1 part of body to another

400

what do the following surgical suffixes mean?
-ectomy
-ostomy
-otomy
-plexy
-plasty

-ectomy: removal of organ or part by surgery (hysterectomy)
-ostomy: surgically creating an artifical opening between a hollow organ and abdomina wall ( tracheostomy/tracheotomy)
-otomy: surgical incision
-plexy: fixation (pyloroplexy)
-plasty: shaping or surgical formation of (rhinoplasty)

401

how are the "abdomina gutters" (paravertebral gutters) exposed?

pull descending duodenum and mesoduodenum or colon and mesocolon medially

402

what is ileus?

obstruction of the intestines

403

can the liver be palpable in the normal dog?

no

404

how is the descending colon palpated? when is this easiest?

on left side; when constipated

405

can the kidneys be palpated in the dog?

in some dogs, right is more difficult

406

how easy can the cat's kidneys be palpated through the abdominal wall?

usually left pendulous enough to palpate, right may also be palpated

407

is the urinary bladder palpable in the dog and cat?

readily

408

when can and can't the uterus be palpated?

can't/rarely: nonpregnant *****
-pregnant: vesicle palpable ranging (marble to egg) at 25-35 days then horns uniformly enarged: nonpalpable

409

how is the superficial inguinal lymph node papated?

subcutaneoulsy just craniomedial to thigh

410

how are plugged anal sacs treated?

manually evaculation (gloved hand holds 4x4 gauze pushed forward cranial to sacs, squeeze in and pull caudally evacuation sac; or gloved finger in anus, thumb lateral and deep to a sac, squeeze and withdraw)