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Flashcards in Clinical/ Applied Anatomy Deck (67)
1

What is the location of most fractures of the humerus

Shaft (diaphysis)

2

What hinders the retraction of median nerve and brachial artery during surgery in the cat

They pass through the supracondylar foramen

3

What can cause premature closer of a growth plate

Injury to physis (growth plate)

4

What happens if there is premature closure of the distal ulnar physis

Cranial and medial curvature of the radius carpal valgus, and subluxation of elbow

5

What type of fracture often occurs in the radius and ulna

Open

6

How are simple fractures of the radius and ulna treated

with external cast

7

how are olecranon fractures treated and why

requires tension band appliance ( 2 IM pins and a figure 8 wire) to counteract the pull of the triceps brachii muscle

8

What is the first thing you should think about when treating trochlear notch fractures

need exact anatomical reduction

9

What is the "quick" that bleeds if a horny claw is cut too short

Artery in the dermis over the ungual process

10

how is cutting the Quick prevented when trimming pigmented and unpigmented claws

Unpigmented: don't cut into visible pink cone
pigmented: Shave off layers until the white area is reached then use the first to judge the rest

11

What must be removed in a declaw to prevent regrowth

Ungual crest

12

What two methods of declawing ensure removal of the ungual crest

Remove all to P3, or all ungual crest but the base/ flexor process of P3

13

How is a declaw operation preformed

Guillotine nail clipper: blade in dorsal distal interphalangeal joint and other distal to digital pad

14

What is sequestrum

Piece of dead bone

15

When is it best to remove dewclaws in dogs

in neonate

16

Briefly describe how a dewclaw is removed in a neonate

Prep, cut dewclaw from metatarsal bones, single absorbable suture

17

What can be mistaken for a chip fracture in a carpal radiograph

Sesamoid bone of the oblique carpal extensor tendon

18

what, if damaged causes lunation or subluxation of the carpal joint

Rapture of the palmar carpal ligament and the joint capsule

19

what is the term for extra digits, common in cats

polydactyly

20

What is an unhealed fracture, having all the structures of a synovial joint

False joint

21

What is an articular separation called

Luxation, subluxation, or dislocation

22

What is the most common site for osteochondrosis

Shoulder- head of the humerus

23

With what does the shoulder joint communicate in the canine

intertubercular bursa

24

What helps prevent lunation in the shoulder

thickening of joint capsule and adjacent muscles

25

Why is lateral lunation more likely in the dogs elbow

lateral epicondyle is smaller than the medial

26

Define ununited anconeal process

Failure of the anconeal process to unite with the ulna after 6 months of age

27

When does the anconeal process unite in German Shepherds

by 6 months

28

What can be fragmented medial coronoid process cause

degeneration of elbow joint

29

What muscle is incised to open the elbow joint laterally

Anconeus

30

How do you determine unilateral atrophy of shoulder muscles

Compare muscles on both side by palpation

31

What what level is it easier to amputate the forelimb and why

Scapular removal is faster and easier than shoulder disarculation

32

Where is a subcutaneous injection made

Though the skin into superficial fascia

33

How can pus move from one are to another

Along fascial planes

34

How can a neck infection spread through the thorax

Migrate down facial planes

35

How are fascial planes used in surgery

Used as cleavage planes to reach deep structures relatively free from blood

36

Why is leaving the scapula when amputation the forelimb cosmetically unacceptable in short haired dogs

Atrophy= unsightly bony prominences

37

How do dogs do on 3 limbs

Most adapt well larger the animal the harder

38

What muscles must be transected to remove the entire forelimb including the scapula

all extrinsic muscles of the forelimb

39

what is tenotomy

transecting a tendon

40

What is the easiest vein for venipuncture

Cephalic vein

41

Where is the venipuncture usually preformed on the cephalic vein

in the forearm above the carpus; start distally so that if you flub you can move up the arm

42

To puncture the external jugular vein first go through the ____ parallel to the vein and then angle and insert the needle gently into the vein

Skin because it moves freely

43

Why can't you tourniquet be effectively used in the middle of the antebracium

Caudal interosseous is protected from occlusion by deep position between bones

44

How is the superficial cervical lymph node palpated in a dog

Retract arm and palpate in deep to brachiocephalicus and cranial to supraspinatus mm, just dorsal to the level of acromium

45

How is the accessory axillary lymph node palpated if it is present

Lay hand flat on thorax caudal to arm and stroke caudally

46

Why can a broken neck result in respiratory paralysis

Phernic nerve to diaphragm arises from cervical and brachial plexus

47

What is the panniculus response

contraction of cutaneous trunci muscle in response to a pin prick of trunk

48

What is the reflex arch for the panniculus response

Sensation from the skin of the trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal nn to the spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic n. out to the cutaneous trunci muscle

49

Clinically what is the panniculus response used to evaluate

Level of thoracic spinal cord damage

50

Where is the spinal cord damage if the panniculus response disappears at the level of the 12 thoracic vertebrae

Level of T10 (segment 2 vertebrae cranial to level of skin because nerves pass caudoventrally

51

What are signs of complete avulsion of the brachial plexus

complete paralysis, extended flaccid limb. unable to support weight and dragging dorsum of paw

52

Does sensation to the complete aspect of the arm rule out complete brachial plexus avulsion

no because are innervated by the intercostobrachialis nn. which doesn't arise form the brachial plexus

53

What results from the damage to the supra scapular nerve

sweeney

54

What is sweeney

Atrophy of the suprasinatus and infraspinatus mm= prominent scapular spine

55

What is the most common and clinically sig. nerve problem of the forelimb

Radial paralysis

56

What are the two types of radial nerve injury

high and low radial nerve injury

57

Where are high and low radial nerve injury located

High: before triceps
Low: after triceps

58

What are the signs of high radial nerve paralysis

Inability to bear weight on limb, dropped elbow and knuckling over digits

59

what are the signs for low radial nerve paralysis

Knuckling over digits

60

To what common condition is low radial nerve paralysis a sequela

fracture of the humerus

61

What are the two ways to tell if there is nerve damage

loss of skin sensation and loss of motor enervation (loss of function or spongy feel to muscles)

62

What sensory loss is diagnostic for radial nerve injury

Loss of sensation on dorsal manus

63

How is knuckling of radial nerve paralysis compensated

flip the limb as it is advanced

64

how is the loss of motor neurons of the limbs determined

Observance of gait; depression of tone and reflexes; palpation of muscle atrophy

65

How is loss of sensory neurons determined

analgesia (loss of sensation)

66

What is the most cranial aspect of the upper forelimb

point of the shoulder/ greater tubercle

67

what palpable process separates the lateral surface of the scapula

spine of the scapula