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Flashcards in Q&A Radiology Deck (33)
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What is the picture taken by a radiographic machine called

Radiograph or film, not an X-Ray


Why isn't x-ray an appropriate term for a radiograph/film

Cant see X-Rays


What is evaluated in a radiograph

Shape and Density


What can eliminate needing to think about the inverse square rule

Using standard distances for different techniques (technique chart) eliminates distance as a variable


How do you minimize the distortion of divergence in radiology

Always place the part/ side of interest against the cassette so it will sharp and close to actual size


How do the five different radiograph densities appear on film

Air= black, Fat= black, water= shades of gray, bone=white, and metal=white


What are the five B's that aid the remembering density differences

Bubbles, blubber,blood, bone, and bullet= air, fat, water, bone, and metal


What is required to see structures in a radiograph that touch each other

Differences in density between them


How is fat a friend when reading radiographs

more radiolucent= contrast soft tissues


A. increase opacity
B. Decrease opacity
E.Increase radiolucency

A. Whiter shadow than expected caused by an increased subject density or size
B. Darker shadow than expected, due to a decrease in the subject density or size
C.Dark, a structure allowing most of the X-Rays to pass through it, resulting in a dark shadow
D.White, a structure that blocks most of the X-rays to pass through it, resulting in a dark shadow
E.Darker, caused by a decreased density of size of a subject


What is the general rule in preparing the animal to take a good radiograph

minimal amount of movement


Discuss minimal amount of movement when taking radiographs

Varies with type of radiograph: from minimal Restraint, to sedation, or anesthetized


What does and does not lead protect against in relationship to radiology

does: scatter; doesn't: primary beam


What is often imagined in radiographs but can't be seen as it is a 2-dementionalimage

do not try to read or see depth


How are radiograph views named

where the beam enters and exits the body/part


Describe how the beam enters and exits the body in the following views:
A.Right and left lateral projections of major body cavities (abdomen thorax)
B.DV/ dorsoventral and VD ventraldorsal
C.Carinalcasudal/ anteriorposterior
D.DP dorsalpalmer (dorsalplantar pD) palmarodorsal projection

A. Named for the surface closet to the cassette
B.DV: beam enters the dorsal surface and exits the ventral VD: enters the ventral and exits the dorsal
C:Beam enters the carinal/anterior side and exits the caudal/posterior side of the limb above the caps and tarsus
D.DP shot from the "front to back" dorsal to the plamar side below the proximal end of the carpus (tarsus); PD beam through the palmar/plantar side and out the dorsal side below the proximal end of the carpus (tarsus)


What are the L and R markers indicate on the radiograph

Patients side placed on the film/ "down", side of the body in VD and DV films, or which limb if there is only one limb in the film


What should always be used to check if the markers on the film are correct

Anatomical landmarks


What side of the body or limbs are the following anatomical landmark?
A. Apex of the heart
B.Gas bubble in the funds of the stomach
C.Descending colon
D. Cranial Kidney, Caudal Kidney
E.Anticlinal vertebra-vertical vertebrae
F. Head of the humerus
G. Radius
I:Distal end of the ulna
J:Accessory carpal bone
K: Dew claw
L: Patella

D.Right, left
E.usually T11 in dogs
F: Caudal
H: Caudal
I: lateral and caudal
J: Lateral and palmar
L: Cranial
M: Lateral
N: Lateral Plantar


What is the survival law when reading radiographs

read in a systemic manner


What helps you orient the views and indicate the direction of the beam

anatomical landmarks


what view silhouettes lateral and medial limb structures

craniocaudally, dorsopalmar, ordorsoventral


Since the radiograph is in two dimensional representation of a three dimensional object, how is the third dimension extrapolated

at least two radiographs must be taken at 90 deg to each other


The different views _____ different sides of the bones

Highlight/ silhouette


what does the lateral view silhouette

cranial and caudal surfaces of the bone


is the cartilage seen radiographically

No, only inferred


Since cartilage can't be seen radiographically, how is it evaluated

check the subchondral bone


What is the space between the bone seen in a radiograph

joint space and articular cartilage


What is the composition of most long bones at birth

Bone capped at both ends with articular cartilage, 2 cartilaginous discs between the diaphysis and the 2 epiphyses


What are the cartilaginous discs between the diaphysis and the epiphyses

Epiphyseal side of the metaphyseal, or growth plates