RED ARROWS (Robia) & UNDERLINED (Ozark) Flashcards Preview

FHB - Endocrinology (by Richie) > RED ARROWS (Robia) & UNDERLINED (Ozark) > Flashcards

Flashcards in RED ARROWS (Robia) & UNDERLINED (Ozark) Deck (79)
1

Meiosis II of ovum is completed at

fertilization (discontinuous)

2

Spermatogenesis results in how many germ cells

4

3

Oogenesis restults in how many germ cells

1

4

Normal sperm production requires

reduced temp

5

What receptor (and where) is upregulated in pregnancy promote cause GERD?

B-receptors on LES

6

What steroid hormone peaks during labor, and promotes partuition?

cortisol

7

What is progesterone's role during pregnancy?

maintains uterine quiescence and sustains fetus

8

What is estrogen's role during pregnancy?

Promotes partuition, increases sensitivity to OXY

9

Ovary development depends on presence of

2x and no y

10

loss of one x results in

ovarian dysgenesis but no lose of female ducts or genitalia (turners)

11

How is it possible to have XX male and XY female?

presence or absence of XY, respectively

12

What promotes relaxin? What does it do?

hCG promotes relaxin. It relaxes the pelvic bones (looser)...

13

XY without SRY looks like

turners

14

When male hormones are absent, default is

female genital tract, external genitals

15

What blocks 5-alpha reductase?

Propecia (finesteride)

16

XO is

turners

17

Seminifereous tubule dysgenesis disease

XXY klinefelters

18

What causes male pseudohermaphroditism

Androgen resistance

19

Main cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

21 hydroxylase deficiency

20

21 hydroxylase deficiency main cause of

CAH

21

Lack cortisol/aldosterone. Main cause

CAH - 21 hydroxylase deficiency

22

slide 21...

COME BACK TO THIS

23

clitoromegaly....retention of urogenital sinus and fusion of labia...these features are exhibited in

female pseudohermaphroditism ... virilization by androgens....

24

T to E2

aromatase

25

T to DHT

5-alpha hydroxylase (blocked by propecia, finesteride)

26

Male pattern baldness caused by

DHT

27

What is the function of the intercellular bridges between secondary spermatocytes?

Synchronizes development, sharing resources...large enough to pass organelles by MT's

28

What's an acrosome?

A cap of membrane containing digestive enzymes

29

Continuous exposure (not pulsatile) of GnRH

inhibitory FSH and LH release

30

What keeps T high near developing sperm?

ABP from sertoli cells (which are stimulated by T and FSH)

31

Paracrine inhibin from sertoli does what to leydig?

PROMOTES it (opposite)

32

Paracrine activin from sertoli does what to leydig?

INHIBITS it (opposite)

33

Ovulatory phase

short 1-3 days, time of final oocyte maturation and release into reproductive tract. LH/FSH surge

34

as the follicular phase progresses, what happens to E2?

E2 synthesis from ovary increases past certain threshold, and SWITCHES from negative to positive feedback at ant. pituitary: LH SURGE.

35

What hormone is secreted at IMPLANTATION

hCG

36

Theca cells are analogous to sertoli cells. What enzyme is lacking in theca cells?

aromatase

37

Granulosa cells are analogous to leydig cells. What enzyme is not lacking?

aromatase. Androstenedione from theca cells can be made into E2

38

Describe ovulatory mucus secretions

Crystalized mucus looks like "Fern"
Most "stretch"

39

Female infertility quadruples between ages

20 and 40

40

Describe the acrosomal reaction

spermatozoan has receptors for glycoprotein of zona pellucida, called "ZP3". binding causes increased IP3, leading to INCREASED CALCIUM, and membrane fusion, forcing enzyme rich contents out

41

Mechanism of polyspermy?

Sperm penetration promotes release of enzymes that harden glycoproteins of zona pellucida. Oocyte's internal vesicles release hydrolytic enzymes that digest ZP2, altering the membrane to modified ZP3, which is HARDENED so polyspermy can't occur

42

Ca2+ increase that caused cortical reaction also triggers

second meiotic division of oocyte

43

how many sperm actually arrive at the distal end of fallopian tube

50 or less

44

What is the failure rate of implantation

70%

45

What happens to the zona pellucida during adhesion of the zygote to uterine wall?

it dissolves

46

During adhesion stage of implantation, the blastocyst secretes _____ which increases integrins in endometrial cells

IL1

47

What does osteopontin do?

The embryo and the endometrium both have increased integrins. Osteopontins bridge the two integrin-rich interfaces during adhesion.

48

What do stream cells do, during adhesion?

stromal cells form decidua and SECRETE NUTRIENTS. Later this becomes a barrier and endocrine organ.

49

What is the role of the synctiotrophoblast?

Responsible for most endocrine functions "acts like pituitary"

50

What is the role of the cytotrophoblast?

Secrete CRH, TRH, and somatostatin "acts like hypothalamus"

51

Thick layer of well vascularized endometrium

ideal for implantation of embryo. Occurs during luteal phase. Maintained by progesterone from corpus luteum. If fertilization occurs, hCG from placenta maintains corpus luteum to maintain the endometrium

52

hCG from placenta

increases by LOG SCALE (a lot) and negatively regulates pituitary release of LH/FSH so another follicle doesn't develop

53

What inhibits RPL

progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy, and dopamine

54

What happens to the size of fetal adrenal gland, as it starts cranking out DHEA-S for estrogen synthesis?

grows to 20x original size

55

Marker for fetal wellbeing? How is it made?

Estradiol.

Cholesterol from mom, is made into pregnenalone (via desmolase) in the placenta. The pregnenalone goes to the fetal adrenal gland, where it is converted to DHEA-S. DHEAS-S goes to fetal liver, where it becomes 16-OH DHEA-S. 16-OH DHEA-S then goes to the placenta, where it is made into Estriol.

Although estriol is the major estrogen during pregnancy, it has weak estrogenic activity.

56

What prevents premature lactogenesis?

High E2/Progesterone from the fetus

57

What happens to LES during pregnancy

decreased tone. more heartburn

58

Ferguson reflex

More distention of cervix, more OXY release, which promotes prostaglandin release, which promotes contractions.

59

Cortisol promotes

surfactant production in baby

60

What stimulates maternal behavior during pregnancy, and after birth? OXY or prolactin?

prolactin

61

Whale milk has what % fat?

40-65%

62

What are the two effects of prolactin?

Mammogenic (breast development)
Galactogenic (milk production)

63

Removing dopamine release inhibition on

prolactin secreting lactotrophs in anterior pituitary, promoting milk production

64

What does suckling do to GnRH

Inhibits arcuate and POA....decrease GnRH....

65

FSH stimulates which cells? Pick 2
A. Granulosa
B. Sertoli
C. Theca
E. Leydig

Granulosa and sertoli

66

LH stimulates which cells? Pick 2

A. Granulosa
B. Sertoli
C. Theca
E. Leydig

C and E

67

Menarche. When usually occurs?

(First menses): usually between 11-14 yo in USA

68

What's abnormal for menarche?

Menarche that's more than 2.5 years after thelarche

69

What tanner stage do you get COURSE pubic hair (both men and women)

3

70

In the 2nd male tanner stage, testicular volume size increases by how much?

>3mL

71

Describe precocious puberty in women

younger than 6 years old

72

Describe precocious puberty in men

younger than 9 years old

73

Primary amenorrhea

no menses by 16, or 2.6 years after thelarche

74

Secondary amenorrhea

absence of 3 consecutive cycles following the establishment of regular cyclic menstrual periods of 6 months of amenorrhea.

75

HYPERgonadotrophic hypogonadism

Low E2, high LH/FSH
Eg. Turner's

76

HYPOgonadotrophic hypogonadism

Low E2, low LH/FSH
Eg. Kallmans
Eg. hypopituitary, infarct, stress

77

Abnormal gap in tanner stages

>2 tanner stage difference

78

First sign of pubertal development in females

breast buds

79

Normal cycles depend on what kind of feedback

positive