Regeneration - EQ2 - Why might regeneration be needed? Flashcards

1
Q

List indicators that a region is declining

A
  • low levels of qualifications
  • low property prices
  • low incomes
  • low life expectancy
  • declining populations
  • dereliction
  • high unemployment
  • high crime
  • high homelessness
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
2
Q

What is a case study location for a declining location, resultant of economic restructuring

A

The Rust Belt - Clairton Pennylvania

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
3
Q

What are the statistics to show a population decline in the Rust Belt - Clairton Pennylvania

A
  • 1950s - 20,000
  • now - 6,000
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
4
Q

Why is Clairton known as the Rust Belt

A
  • This refers to the decline in metal manufacturing
  • The supporting industries of coal mining, steel manufacturing and engineering have all closed down leading to deindustrialisation
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
5
Q

Why did the rust belt decline - global shift

A
  • Overseas companies (e.g, in China) produce cheaper coal and steel.
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
6
Q

Why did the rust belt decline - developments in technology

A
  • Mining companies have mechanised to cut costs (resulting in job losses).
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
7
Q

Why did the rust belt decline - wage shift

A
  • Lower wage costs in south-eastern USA has led to the relocation of the steel and car industries
  • 80,000 jobs lost in car manufacturing in Michigan during the period 1993-2008
  • 90 000 jobs gained in Southern states
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
8
Q

Why do people emigrate from the rust belt?

A
  • lack of jobs
  • lack of opportunities for young people
  • better climate & living conditions in the sun belts
  • crime & social unrest
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
9
Q

Arguments for Subsidising the US coal industry

Imports/ Exports

A
  • by maintaing a domestic steel industry the US has more control over prices & is less reliant on import/ export tarriffs
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
10
Q

Arguments for Subsidising the US coal industry

Politics

A
  • a negative multiplier process would incur huge political shocks from US population in rust belt states
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
11
Q

Arguments for Subsidising the US coal industry

Local economy

A
  • the decline in industry would quickly lead to a negative multiplier effect —> social & economic implications
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
12
Q

Arguments for Subsidising the US coal industry

Global markets

A
  • steel prices remain competitive on the global market
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
13
Q

Arguments against Subsidising the US coal industry

Job sectors

A
  • More economically viable to invest in tertiary & quaternary
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
14
Q

Arguments against Subsidising the US coal industry

Environment

A
  • Poor, environmental impacts –> counter intuitive for environmental treaties
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
15
Q

Arguments against Subsidising the US coal industry

Politics

A
  • politicians could use it as a bargaining tool offering short-term solutions
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
16
Q

Arguments against Subsidising the US coal industry

International Policies

A
  • WTO rules state that countries should not subsidise industries (although this is diffcult to enforce)
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
17
Q

Arguments against Subsidising the US coal industry

Developing investment

A
  • Would enable money to be spent on supporting new industries/ developing skills/ addressing the problems / diversification
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
18
Q

What is a sink estate

A
  • housing estates characterised by high levels of economic & social deprivation, crime, domestic violence & gang warfare
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
19
Q

What is a gated community

A
  • affluent neighbourhood of towns or cities where houses are designed with landscape 24/7 surveillance, with gates & fences to improve privacy and safety, detering access to unknown people
  • In some countries, the gated community is patrolled by private security & access to the community is controlled near to deprived urban areas
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
20
Q

What is a commuter village

A
  • affluent rural area where a high proportion of residents travel to work in urban areas rather than depending on the rural economy for jobs
  • they have higher IMD scores (low deprivation) than declining rural settlements,
  • though these scores may mask pockets of deprivation among some residents who are not accessing higher incomes from urban-based employment
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
21
Q

What is a declining rural settlement

A
  • Rural settlements once dominated by primary economic activities but which have lost some or most of these activities
  • These settlements can be characterised by low IMD scores because of lower employment, an ageing population and social problems related to drug use and lower youth expectations
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
22
Q

What are the characteristics of sink estates

A
  • low income groups in need of social assistance
  • built to improve living conditions for poor inner city residents
  • yet people here are more likely to be unemployed & have poor mental health as a result of low air quality, declining services & rising crime
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
23
Q

Give a named example of a sink estate

A

Broadwater farm in Tottenham

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
24
Q

What are the characteristics of gated communities

A
  • long history
  • gentrification
  • wealthy residents
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
25
Q

Give a named example of a gated community

A

Bishops Avenue

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
26
Q

Give a named example of a commuter village

A

Hertfordshire

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
27
Q

What are the characteristics of commuter villages

A
  • ‘wealth corridors’ where rural homes are nicer than urban homes
  • good transport links
  • affluent populations
  • pressure on house prices
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
28
Q

What are the characteristics of declining rural settlements

A
  • geographically switched off
  • lack of services & job opportunities
  • declining populations
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
29
Q

What is place attachment

A
  • The perception about, and the attachment to, any place will depend on obvious factors
  • such as age, length of residence, ethnicity and deprivation, but also the media’s portrayal
  • & whether government and private business policies, programmes and projects are successful for that particular person
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
30
Q

What are the 2 factors affecting a person’s sense of place

A
  • membership - a feeling of belonging familarity & being accepted
  • influence - a sense of playing a part in a place & hence caring about it
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
31
Q

What do we mean by ‘lived experience’

A
  • During a person’s lifetime they will have different experiences,
  • depending on their family situation, family culture, educational experience, life cycle, living spaces and personal interests
  • These affect their judgements about places and situations and lead to the perceptions, views and opinions
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
32
Q

What are the 5 factors that affect level of engagement

A
  • age
  • length of residence
  • levels of deprivation
  • gender
  • ethnicity
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
33
Q

What affects levels of engagement

Age

A
  • especially if combined with length of residence in a place
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
34
Q

What affects levels of engagement

Length of Residence

A
  • new migrants and students may have less strong attachments than long standing locals
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
35
Q

What affects levels of engagement

Ethnicity

A
  • non-white British may differ in their views because of local antipathy or acceptance
How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
36
Q

What affects levels of engagement

Gender

A
  • Despite modern equality measures, women may still feel less able to do certain things
  • Women or men may also be more active in their local community if home with children
37
Q

What affects levels of engagement

Levels of deprivation

A
  • higher levels may be associated with antiestablishment views; those in temporary accommodation or rented housing may feel less ‘at home’ than owner occupiers.
38
Q

How can the residents view of the place they live in contrast with that of the government

A
  • ‘Top-down’ decisions often don’t meet the needs of local people as the people who make these decisions have often lived very different lives to the residents that they are planning for
  • This can cause political apathy:
  • people will unwillingly accept the conditions they find themselves living in, but feel powerless to do anything about them —> conflict
39
Q

In what 2 ways can we measure engagement

A
  • Local & National election turnout
  • The development & support for local community groups
40
Q

Explain how political engagement can judge the level of engagement

Age

A
  • 18-24s almost half as likely to vote as those aged 65
  • In 2010, 43% of people aged 18-24 voted compared to 78% of those aged 65
41
Q

Explain how political engagment can judge the level of engagement

Level of deprivation

A
  • As a London news website once said: ‘the poor don’t vote’
  • Research has found that deprived areas have little involvement in engagement and politics, creating a cycle as they are more and more excluded
42
Q

Explain how political engagment can judge the level of engagement

Ethnicity

A
  • Ethnic groups are traditionally less likely to be involved with community engagement, though this is predicted to change
43
Q

Explain how political engagment can judge the level of engagement

Ethnicity - how is involvement predicted to change

A
  • It is suggested that deprived minority groups will involve themselves
  • It is thought this is as a consequence of facing prejudice or exploitation
44
Q

Explain how political engagment can judge the level of engagement

Gender

A
  • Politically this is fairly even between men and women (turn out of 67% and 66% respectively in 2015)
  • however women are more likely to engage in community activities
45
Q

Explain how political engagment can judge the level of engagement

Length of Residence

A
  • People who have lived in an area for longer are going to have more of a
  • ‘lived experience’
  • & therefore going to be more concerned about their area, and will want their voices heard
46
Q

What are the statistics of harmful impacts of the London Riots

A
  • 1,600 individuals identified by CCTV and arrested
  • 3,443 crimes linked to disorder
  • 5 deaths, 16 serious injuries
  • £200 million damage to property
  • 200 families homeless
47
Q

Name some of the causes of the London riots 2011

A
  • Poor relationships between police and black community
  • Petty criminality
  • Urban deprivation
  • Police stop and search tactics
  • Anger about bankers’ bonuses
  • Alienated and disaffected youth population
  • Government education cutbacks
  • High youth unemployment
48
Q

What are the 3 main priorities for the Tottenham regeneration project

A
  • fix overcrowded council housing, & urban deprivation
  • protecting small businesses & communities, in light of the alienated youth population facing unemployment
  • gang culture & the strained relationship between the police & black community
49
Q

What are 2 examples conflict from differing groups in communities

A
  • Studentification
  • The Northern power house
50
Q

examples conflict from differing groups in communities

Studentification

A
  • Youthful groups who are concentrated into an area with little disregard for their surrounding longer-term residents (age & length of residence)
51
Q

examples conflict from differing groups in communities

The Northern Powerhouse

A
  • strategies introduced to reduce the 2 speed economy has caused negative multiplier effect
52
Q

Why is rebranding needed

Loss of industry

A
  • Loss of industry - In the 1980s, Asia grew in manufacturing goods and resources
  • Hence, importing goods from overseas became so cheap that firms stopped buying goods and resources from the UK and switched to imports
  • This meant that people who were trained and working in the primary and secondary sector lost their jobs as firms could not compete with import prices
53
Q

Why is rebranding needed

Population Change

A
  • This meant that people started emigrating to other part of the country in search of jobs for which they had skills
  • The state of the economy changed because economy was now made up of majority of service sector
  • & many people did not have the skills to deal with these jobs
54
Q

Why is rebranding needed

The spiral of decline

A
  • This is the negative multiplier effect
  • People emigrating, business declining and a lack of jobs meant that even if a business did start up as people did not jobs they did not have the money to spend on it hence the new business would suffer too
  • This would carry on into a negative multiplier circle
55
Q

What are the different ways in which places rebrand themselves

A

Sports
Music
Destination Tourism
National Parks
Festivals
Industrial heritage
Eco- friendly images
Flagship developments

56
Q

Why does Cornwall need rebranding

A
  • Lack of access and cheaper abroad holidays the number of visitors has been declining in Cornwall
  • Seasonal tourism contributes to suffering businesses
  • Primary sectors jobs especially farmers face unemployment as cheaper agricultural imports
  • negative multiplier effect took place and Cornwall became deprived
57
Q

What is Cornwall’s location

A
  • peripheral town in the South West of England
58
Q

Why did Grampound start a community shop

A
  • struggles to keep basic services, due to better amenities in Truro
  • characteristics of a commuter village
  • really high ownership of fuel-inefficient cars.
  • Cornwall has the lowest mean income in the UK
  • age of residence -> 25% of population 65+
    This all led to social isolation
59
Q

Who funded the community shop in Grampound

A
  • 257/280 households in Grampound became shareholders in the new shop, raising £20,500
  • The Prince’s Countryside Fund, a national charity, awarded £19,000
  • Grants from the Parish Council, & charities keen on rural development gave £10,000.
    In total, the village raised over £50,000
60
Q

What features of Grampound would place it at a disadvantage

A
  • Grampound is a working (as opposed to a tourist) village; similar involvement is harder in villages with second homeowners
  • The size of the settlement also counts, because people generally engage less in urban areas
  • Grampound shows that certain factors determine how engaged people become with the places in which they live
61
Q

What is the wider significance of the Grampound community shop

A
  • Key people are willing to stand for elections & raise money
  • Grampound has a thriving carnival every September & 14 clubs
  • Politicians - county councillor lives in the village & organises a monthly local-produce market, reinforcing local farming importance
  • His newsletters make residents feel informed and supported
  • 2nd place in SW regional competition inspiring further regen
62
Q

How does Engagement vary in Cornwall

A
  • In the 2013 Parish Council Election, the turnout was 63%
  • Nationally, the turnout in Parish Council Elections is below 30%
  • The turnout in Grampound for the County Council Election in the same year was still as high as 43%,
  • against a county average of 33%.
63
Q

Why do regeneration projects cause conflict

A
  • the process is top-down
  • most schemes are based on economic motives
  • groups disagree about what the purpose of regen & the demographic its for
  • inequality - benefitting high-income residents
  • ethnic tensions
64
Q

Support for regeneration schemes in Cornwall has varied, depending on whether they are part of …………………………. policies

A
  • local
  • regional
  • national
65
Q

How can local regeneration schemes avoid conflict in Cornwall

A
  • Council proposed to build 69 new houses in the village - which was overwhelmingly supported.
  • 1/3 of the housing was classed as ‘affordable’, and residents felt that the extra population would help to maintain the village’s services
  • The developers worked with the Council on the design, and held public meetings to gauge support
66
Q

How can regional regeneration schemes cause conflict in Cornwall

A
  • Plans for a waste incinerator as part of local economic expansion at St Dennis, Cornwall’s poorest area, caused protests - yet Cornwall Council still decided to build it
  • Created only seven jobs, and its 100-metre-high chimney is visually polluting
  • Fear of its toxic emissions for respiratory health
67
Q

How can national regeneration schemes cause conflict in Cornwall

A
  • In line with national policies, Cornwall Council has supported renewable energy.
  • Wind turbines usually cause protest being visual eyesores
  • However, Grampound’s residents were persuaded by an offer of £15,000 annually from the energy company for community projects.
68
Q

List some qualitative sources we can use to evaluate regeneration

A
  • Local community groups provide opinions and lived experiences
  • Media sources
  • Different Newspapers with contrasting political slants
  • Develop and understanding and appreciation of different views of stakeholders
69
Q

List some quantitative sources we can use to evaluate regeneration

A
  • Census Data
  • Neighbourhood Statistics
  • Office for National Statistics (ONS)
  • Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)
  • Use of spearman’s rank and scatter graphs?
70
Q

Where is Custom House located

A
  • In the London Borough of Newham, East London
  • It is a part of the Royal Dock which is northeast of Canary Wharf & the London Docklands
71
Q

Why is transport critical to London’s infrastructure and regeneration process

A
  • 2015 - Custom House railway station in London’s Dockland severed Canning Town which is one of London’s most-deprived areas
  • The station was already on the DLR and now included Crossrail which created a new link to connect East and West London
72
Q

What has brought opportunities for regeneration to Custom House which was in need of regeneration

A
  • The extension of the Jubilee Line on the London Underground brought commuters to Canary Wharf and development opportunities for places along its route
  • Bermondsey was one of London’s most derelict landscapes after the old docks closed
  • When the Jubilee Line extension arrived, the area became a hotspot as investors bought up old warehouses and terraced houses which were suited for gentrification
  • The latest property hotspots are along the Crossrail link
73
Q

Why did Custom House need regeneration

Economically

A
  • In 2001, only 37.6% of adults were in full-time work - compared to the London average of 51.6%
74
Q

Why did Custom House need regeneration

Socially

A
  • The area needed improved housing, health facilities and education.
  • In 2001, 71.6% of the housing stock was rented, and much of it was of low quality
  • 43.1% of adults had no educational qualifications.
75
Q

Why did Custom House need regeneration

Environmentally

A
  • the closure in the 1980s of the docks and their associated industries resulted in environmental decay (with a legacy of derelict land and deindustrialisation).
76
Q

Explain what type of regeneration Custom House has been undergoing

A
  • Until 2010 was mostly funded by central government
  • Its focus has been on community-led regeneration, i.e. identifying the community’s needs as a way of driving change forward
  • Its aim has been to create suburbs with a mixture of owned and social housing
77
Q

What does CATCH project mean

A

(CAnning Town and Custom House)

78
Q

What are the 4 areas the CATCH project focused on to benefit the community

A
  • housing
  • employment
  • education
  • health
79
Q

How much has the CATCH project cost so far

A

£3.7 billion - as a part of the Government’s Mixed Communities Initiative

80
Q

Explain the 4 areas of focus of Custom House Regeneration

Housing

A
  • 10,000 affordable new homes, particularly family-sized houses, were planned for construction by 2020
  • Much of the existing social housing was poorly built and needed renovation
81
Q

Explain the 4 areas of focus of Custom House Regeneration

Employment

A
  • Job creation and training for local people, plus offices and workspaces were made available for small businesses
  • New local shops and a supermarket were opened
  • Public transport was improved
  • Plans to create training opportunities for local people in the construction industry to attempt to address the high unemployment in the area
82
Q

Explain the 4 areas of focus of Custom House Regeneration

Education

A
  • Replacement buildings for local primary and secondary schools were built.
  • In 2015, 59% of Newham’s students achieved five or more GCSEs at A to C - more than double the figure in 1996 (27.9%), and better than improvements nationally
83
Q

Explain the 4 areas of focus of Custom House Regeneration

Health

A
  • A new health centre, library, community centre and children’s play areas were opened
  • The streets were made safer by redesigning them using traffic calming and open spaces
84
Q

What has happened to the CATCH development recently

A
  • However, since 2010, government funding has been cut
  • The focus is now on private-sector investment, using the stimulus of Crossrail to attract investors
  • This means that property development - not community need - is now driving regeneration
85
Q

What evidence is there that the media portrays Tottenham’s regeneration negatively
-local media

A
  • Local Newspaper - Many small businesses will be forced to relocate if the High Road West redevelopment goes, fearing the destruction of livelihoods.
  • Local enterprises, with generational establishments, say their futures are at risk from the £1 billion High Road West development - a plan to build thousands of homes on sites opposite Tottenham Hotspur Stadium
86
Q

What evidence is there that the media portrays Tottenham’s regeneration negatively
-national media

A
  • BBC posted an article suggesting tottenham Hotspur were gentrifying & social cleansing the area
  • Relocation options seemed “superficially inviting”, the costs and phasing of the development were “more likely to drive leaseholders out of the area”.
  • They added the council had been “misled” on crowd control because proposed conditions had “failed to secure the safe movement of crowds” - insinuating their lack of organisation, has had a major knock on effect
  • The decision follows the club’s submission of its own revised plans to build 287 “student bedspaces” in blocks up to six storeys high on the site of a former printworks near the stadium - further undermining them
87
Q

What evidence is there that the media portrays the London Dockland’s regeneration negatively

A
  • Often grafitti style art communicates the local community’s upset over the lack of communication & transparency with the market-led regen which perhaps doesn’t sufficiently recognise lower income households
88
Q

What evidence is there that the media portrays the London Dockland’s regeneration positively

A
  • Investment papers - suggesting the regen offers profitable retail opportunities, suggesting to wealthier demographics
  • it emphasises that property value will appreciate