Regeneration - EQ1 - How & why do places vary? Flashcards

1
Q

Name the 8 different types of employment

A
  • skilled or unskilled
  • supervisory or management
  • employed or self-employed
  • part-time or full-time
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2
Q

What are the 4 sectors economic activity can be classified under

A
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary
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3
Q

Define ‘place’

A

geographical spaces shaped by individuals and communities overtime

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4
Q

In what ways can employment shape places by

A
  • types of buildings
  • shops & services
  • housing
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5
Q

How can differences in economic activity be reflected through social factors

A

Variations in education levels, health, life expectancy, healthcare & wages

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6
Q

Define primary sector

A
  • collect raw materials
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7
Q

Define secondary sector

A
  • manufacture raw materials into products
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8
Q

Define tertiary sector

A
  • service sector inc.tourism & banking
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9
Q

Define quaternary sector

A
  • research & design sector
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10
Q

Define Quinary

A
  • knowledge management & consultancy
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11
Q

Give job examples from the primary sector

A

fishing
farming
mining

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12
Q

Give job examples from the secondary sector

A

factory workers
carpenters
food processors

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13
Q

Give job examples from the tertiary sector

A

doctors
teachers

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14
Q

Give job examples from the quaternary sector

A

computer programming

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15
Q

Give job examples from the quinary sector

A

CEO
Management consultant

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16
Q

Dominant primary sector UK place examples

A
  • Cornwall
  • Derbyshire
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17
Q

Dominant secondary sector UK place examples

A
  • Swindon
  • Sunderland for car manufacturing
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18
Q

Dominant quaternary sector UK place examples

A
  • Cambridge
  • London
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19
Q

Dominant quinary sector UK place examples

A

London & South-East England

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20
Q

Define quality of life

A
  • a measure of the well-being & life satisfaction of people living in a particular place
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21
Q

What is the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)

A
  • The govts geographical measure of multiple deprivation takes into account seven types of deprivation & combines them into one index in England & Wales
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22
Q

With the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the lower the number…

A
  • the more deprived the area is
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23
Q

What are the 7 types of deprivation in the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)

A
  1. Income
  2. Education
  3. Employment
  4. Housing
  5. Health & Disability
  6. Crime
  7. Living Environment
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24
Q

Explain possible reasons for variations in income across the UK

A
  • Physical factors
  • Accesibility & Connectedness
  • Historical Development
  • Local & national planning
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25
Q

How would you calculate the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

A

Rs = 1 - (6 X sum of d^2) / n^3 - n

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26
Q

In what order should you calculate the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

A
  1. sum of d^2
  2. 6 X sum of d^2
  3. n
  4. n^3
  5. = Rs
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27
Q

List some of the possible reasons for the functions of places

A
  • rural areas can be sites of intense food & production
  • mechanisation
  • location near to coasts, rivers, valuable natural resources
  • administration –> banks, courts
  • retail destinations
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28
Q

Define demographic changes

A
  • changes in the population characteristics of a place
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29
Q

Define ethnic composition

A
  • information about the ethnic characteristics of a group of people
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30
Q

Define age structure

A
  • distribution of various age groups in a population
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31
Q

Define demographic characteristics

A
  • data about groups of people
  • e.g age, gender, income
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32
Q

2021 Census data

Post WW2 migration plays a key role in…

A
  • demographic changes & functions of places in the UK
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33
Q

Give examples of how post WW2 migration plays a key role in demographic changes & functions of places in the UK

A
  • Pakistani communities settled in industrial areas - Birmingham
  • Jamaican migrants (Windrush) –> near Brixton & South London
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34
Q

Define regeneration

A
  • the process of improving a rural or urban place by making positive changes
  • these include development (building on brownfield sites)
  • renewal (improving existing buildings)
  • or rebranding (changing the image of a place through redesign & publicity)
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35
Q

Define gentrification

A
  • renewal, renovation or rebuilding of older & deteriorating buildings in order to create more up market places for middle-class residence to live in, often displacing poorer residents
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36
Q

Define studentification

A
  • when an area or place attracts young graduates who are reshaping & rebranding these areas into cultural villages
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37
Q

What are the 4 main factors which have influenced why places have changed overtime

A
  • Physical
  • Accessibility & connectedness
  • Historical development
  • Local & national planning
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38
Q

Give examples of physical reasons why UK places have changed overtime

A
  • sea level rise is threatening the lives of agricultural workers, hence, possible immigration is at stake
  • climate change concerns are shaping policy, architecture & land-use decisions
  • farmlands are being deforested to create solar farms & zero-emission buildings
  • flood defences need to be invested in
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39
Q

Give UK examples of accessibility & connectedness why UK places have changed overtime

A
  • growth of airports has facilitated migration from Eastern Europe into the UK
  • UK’s motorway & railway network has led to declines in former major railway towns
  • the improvements of communication infrastructture such as fibre-optic broadband has allowed connectedness to rural-areas
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40
Q

Give UK examples of historical developments why UK places have changed overtime

A
  • globalisation has made it more cost effective for manufacturing countries to transfer operations to other parts of the world e.g Asia
  • de-industrialisation has led to major employmment shifts in cities
  • migration into the UK has changed the character of cities (e.g Windrush)
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41
Q

Give UK examples of local & national planning why UK places have changed overtime

A
  • some rural villages risk being overrun by the expansion of urban areas e.g Milton Keynes
  • The govt considers building a rail link between Cambridge & Oxford, which would increase house prices & congestion between them
  • National Infrastructure Plan 2010 has designated towns with new railways & homes, expanding towns e.g Bicester
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42
Q

What was the function of the London Docklands in the 19th century

A
  • During the 19th century, formerly busiest port in London, & globally
  • They were the closest docks to the City of London
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43
Q

Name the 4 causes of decline in the Docklands in the 1980s

A
  • global shift - closure of factories
  • containerisation
  • port industry
  • size of ships got bigger
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44
Q

In the 19th century, the docks were used to…

A
  • import & export goods
  • e.g Surrey docks concentrated on Timber
  • e.g Milwall docks took grain
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45
Q

By the 1950s, in the London Docklands, there was a significant…

A
  • decline with many docks becoming derelict
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46
Q

Describe the demographic of the London Docklands pre-regeneration in 1981

A
  • prodominantly white ethnic groups, working class, low-skilled population, many people worked at he ports nearby within the industry
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47
Q

Describe the issues in the Docklands pre-regeneration in 1981

A
  • poverty & deprived areas
  • lack of trade
  • lack of employment
  • declining services
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48
Q

Who were the stakeholders involved in the regeneration of the London Docklands

A
  • A government Agency
  • Property owners
  • Architects
  • Construction companies
  • Investors
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49
Q

Define market-led regeneration

A
  • the improvement of an area is driven by the potential needs & wants of customers
50
Q

With the LDCC leadingm what type of regenration is taking place in the Docklands

A
  • This was also known as market-led regeneratation, leaving the private sector
  • e.g the free market is able to make decisions about the future of Docklands
51
Q

What are the achievements in economic growth in the London Docklands Regeneration
-new jobs

A
  • Changes in land use with the construction of high rise office buildings,
  • creates high earning jobs, e.g in the quaternary sector,
  • which would generate other jobs, in a ‘trickle down’ wealth effect to poorer countries
52
Q

What are the achievements in economic growth in the London Docklands Regeneration
-economy

A
  • Companies now include investment banks & are in the knowledge economy
53
Q

What are the achievements in economic growth in the London Docklands Regeneration
-deprivation

A
  • The eastend is no longer one of the UK’s most deprived areas, with employment having grown
54
Q

What are the achievements in infrastructure in the London Docklands Regeneration
-airport

A
  • City airports construction provides access to the City & Canary Wharf (5km away) for business travellers, which can lead to FDI
55
Q

What are the achievements in infrastructure in the London Docklands Regeneration
-accessibilty

A
  • acessibility & connectedness is key to the Docklands regeneration success:
  • extending the Jubilee line on the London Underground
  • building new roads
  • developing the Docklands light railway
56
Q

What are the achievements in housing & population in the London Docklands Regeneration
-age

A
  • Many older generations have retired to the Essex coast
  • Older residents have been replaced by a much young generation:
  • The average age of Newham’s population was over 31 in 2011, comapred to the UK average of 40
57
Q

What are the achievements in housing & population in the London Docklands Regeneration
-ethnic composition

A
  • Ethnic composition for the East end has always been diverse, but large scale immigration since 2000 has increased
  • As a result, Newham is now London’s most ethnically diverse borough
58
Q

What are the problems in economic growth in the London Docklands Regeneration
-poverty

A
  • High income earners are the minority
  • Poverty is still present there - in 2012, 27% of Newham’s working population earned less than £7 per hour - the highest percentage of any London borough
59
Q

What are the problems in economic growth in the London Docklands Regeneration
-poor health

A
  • Those in poor health are often unable to worj & are concentrated un what remians low cost social housing
  • This has resulted in high deprivation in Newham,
  • inwhich it had the lowest life expectancy in London in 2012 (77 years)
60
Q

What are the problems in housing & population in the London Docklands Regeneration
-social housing

A
  • In regeneration, the government introduced the right to buy scheme, which gave thos eliving in ocucnil hosuing the opportunity to by their home at a reduced price
  • This transferred a lot of housing from the public to the private sector
  • Lower income people living in social hosuing have been forced out
61
Q

What are the problems in housing & population in the London Docklands Regeneration
-communities

A
  • Increased hosuing supply, not of social housing,
  • has led to gentrification, resulting in a influx of middle class people,
  • from old warehouses becoming desirable & expensive.
  • As a result, traditional communities have been broken up
62
Q

What do socialologists argue what created a community aspect during in the 1950s in London

A
  • centripetal forces
63
Q

In the 1950s in London, there was a strong sense of…

A

community predomiantly from strong family ties

64
Q

What are centrifugal forces

A
  • forces that push people apart
65
Q

How do centrifugal forces cause recognizable change on a local scale

A
  • Although changes are felt most strongly locally, often they are caused by centrifugal forces
  • such as globalisation, immigration & employment
66
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Physical factors: climate change

A
  • climate change influenced the development of the Hale village -one of the most sutainable developments in London:
  • focus for construction measures on a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions through the use of passive design, energy efficiency and renewable energy measures
67
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Physical factors: Central

A
  • proximity to Central London & core economic zones has aso lead to changes –> transport & gentrification
68
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Physical factors: Deindustrialisation

A
  • brownfield sites repurposed for leaisure, residential & commercial uses, bringing new life to formerly neglected areas
69
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Accessibility & Connectedness

A
  • ln the past Tottenham was not a well conected place
  • However, Greater Anglia rail services, Seven sisters, Stratford, Central London
  • Increased accessibility lead to peope being able to commute for work, allowing businesses to move to Tottenham etc
70
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Role of Local Planning

A
  • development proposal addresses the exact need of the residents, focusing regeneration on housing, transport, jobs & healthcare
71
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Role of National Planning

A
  • developments objectives contained in a 5 year plan, relectng govt’s social & economic aspirations for London collectively
  • boosts ecomy, schemes to encourage new businesses & jobs
72
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Historical Developments

A
  • changes in consumer trends & resident requirements overtime:
  • retail - the n. of shops & businesses had dramatcally increased
  • housing needed to be improved –> more apartment blocks
  • TNCs are shaping consumer demands hence characteristics of a place
  • cultural & heritage preservation utilised in regeneration
73
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Globalisation

A
  • the global shift catalysed deindustrialisation in this area
74
Q

Why have changed taken place in Tottenham

Migration

A
  • increased diversity in Tottenham, has led to changes in land use
75
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Physical factors: past

A
  • In the past the physical location played a role in the function –> docks, ships, trade etc
76
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Physical factors: proximity

A
  • close to central London, big business districts e.g City of London - major banks,
  • this proximity made it an attractive option for expanding financial services
77
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Physical factors: waterfront developments

A
  • proximity to the River Thames allowed for development of docks –> marinas, prmenades, public spaces, enhanced aesthetics of area –> increased QofL
78
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Accessibilty & Connectedness

A
  • New transport developments:
  • extension of futher jubilee line provides furtehr regional connectedness - changes to influex of toursist & workers, changing social demographics
  • Docklands light rail - increased regional connectedness
79
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Accessibilty & Connectedness - global

A
  • London city airport - increased global connection
80
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

Historical development

A
  • The area had been in decline since the 1950s, due to containerisation in the port
  • this led to dendustrialisation & LDDC regeneration
  • changes i consumer trends, residents needs, shifted to knowledge economy
  • they then repurposed historic buildings e.g the London Docklands museum
81
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

The role of local & national planning

A
  • Local planning (the govt agency), the LDCC focussed on market led regeneration
  • focused on housing, infratsructure, & economic growth
  • players like investors, construction companies, propety owvers ensured Canary Wharf is now the second CBD
82
Q

Why have changed taken place in the London Docklands

demographics

A
  • Inhabitatnts lead to changes like gentrification & reduced services for oler people
83
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

Regional Influences

A
  • upgraded underground & rail infrastructure
  • this will increase accessibility
  • shortened journey times will attract people, & possibly increase the n. of people in the area commuting to teritary, or knowledge economy jobs
  • this changes social demographic
84
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

National Influences - policies

A
  • national economic policies e.g taxation, interest rates & govt spending, could incentivise certain industries tp invest & expand in an area
85
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

National Influences - chains

A
  • national retail chains may expand its services, creating jobs & simulating economic activity
86
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

National Influences - govt funding

A
  • govt funding & grants can support local initaiatives, shaping the local social & economic landscape, contributing to the development of local prorities
87
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

International Influences - EU trade

A
  • Tottenham has been influened by EU trade policies
  • e.g Tottenham had access to exclsuive market facilitated trade for businesses, offering goods to the continents’ market, in line for competitive tarriffs
88
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

International Influences - EU trade

A
  • EU FDI supported economic development in infrastructure& job creation
89
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

International Influences - EU employment

A
  • membership provided Tottenham residents with opportunities in hospitality, constructiion & healthcare as a part of regeneration
  • this was aided by the EU’s free movement of labour
90
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

International Influences - BREXIT

A
  • Uncertainties:
  • changes in trade policies, border regulation & immigration could impact socio-economic landscape
91
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

What is a TNC operating in Tottenham

A
  • NFL
92
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

Global Influences - How can TNCs effect Tottenham’s economy

A
  • employment - indirect & direct jobs provided
  • labour force expanded - economic vitality & growth
  • social displacement - local businesses lost
  • gentrification
93
Q

How’s influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of Tottenham

Global Influences - Impact of Migration

A
  • cultural diversity
  • labour force - gaps filled
  • pressure on public & private services - social tension & lang barrier
94
Q

What is the overall impact of Global Influences such as TNCs in Tottenham

A

Impact is complex & multifaceted
Effective urban planning, community engagement & policies are essential to harnessing benefits f global influences while mitigating adverse effects

95
Q

Whats influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of London Docks

Regional Influences

A
  • The DLR Lewisham Extension, saves journey time for SE London commuters
  • attracting a vast amount of new workers – with technical skills needed to kick-start new industry severely lacking within the local workforce
  • through ease of access, therefore extensively expanding the labour pool to satisfy the demands of the growing banking which grew 96% from 1981 to 1997
  • & other tertiary and quaternary industries
96
Q

Whats influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of London Docks

National Influences

A
  • Exponential growth of employment opportunity in the London Docklands from increased connectedness to central London and the rest of the UK,
  • meaning the relocation of more affluent young workers have fuelled the gentrification of the area & raised the standard of housing, leisure and the overall atmosphere of local community,
  • demonstrated in the average property prices of £615,000 in 2017
97
Q

Whats influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of London Docks

International Influences

A
  • The connection to Waterloo provides a direct link to the Eurostar International Rail Terminal —> causing increased connectedness to & from Europe
  • allowing for economic change as more business with Europe takes place, but demographic change as it becomes more open to migration from Europe
  • 1991-2000 - 19,888 migrated into the Docklands —> growth of new industry and increased openness and connectedness not only to the south of England, but with Europe
98
Q

Whats influenced the social & economic charactecterstics of London Docks

Global Influences

A
  • Construction of the London City airport - globalisation and increased business with the rest of the world – the focus of which was certainly headed by the relocation of the HSBC and other global banks in Canary Wharf,
  • shaping the economic characteristic as one built around banking and finance.
  • Increased global connectedness may even have further shaped the economic characteristics to account for services and hotels to account for businessmen, with the establishment of many recognisable hotel chains e.g Hilton
99
Q

What are Regional Influences

A
  • Regional development policies or attempts to increase interaction between settlement in a region
100
Q

What are National Influences

A
  • Impact of policies from central government, or expansion/demise of a business that has a national presence
101
Q

What are International Influences

A
  • Impact of EU policies or international trade agreements
102
Q

What are Global Influences

A
  • Impact of TNCs in the area or impact of migration
103
Q

What are the past demographic characteristics of London Docklands

A
  • Class - working-class population (due to factories)
  • Ethnicity - Predominantly White
  • Religion - High proportion of people from the Jewish community
  • Age - Economically active - employed in the factories
104
Q

What are the present demographic characteristics of Tottenham

A
  • Ethnically diverse - large proportion of people who are classified as Black/Black
  • British (26.7%) and White (22.3%)
  • Class - High percentage of working-class residents
  • Age - High proportion of elderly dependents, 25-29 years old = highest, 15-19 years
  • old = families/studentification - university accommodation
  • Gender - balanced
105
Q

What was the past function of Tottenham

A
  • Industrial - factories (brewery, floor-cloth factory, tobacco)
  • Residential
106
Q

What is the present function of Tottenham

A
  • White Hart Lane Stadium (sports-led regeneration)
  • Retail/Commercial - Tottenham Hale retail park/retail developments of High Road Transport -
  • Improvements to White Hart Lane Station (overground → London Liverpool St) and
  • Tottenham Hale (Victoria Line, National Rail to Liverpool St/Stratford, and Stansted Express)
  • Residential - Over 1,000 homes built
  • Recreation/Open Space - Power League, Down Lane Park Hospitality - Restaurants, Premier Inn (hotel)
  • Education - LEA (London Academy of Excellence)
  • Healthcare - New health care centre was built
107
Q

Why was Tottenham in need of regeneration

A
  • 2011 Riots - tension between the police and local community
  • High levels of crime/gang activity (compared to the rest of Haringey)
  • High levels of poverty/low-income households/unemployment —> increased demand for social housing (housing is expensive for many on low and middle incomes, and house prices are increasing)
  • High levels of deprivation
  • Deindustrialisation as a result of the global shift → economic decline
  • Poor quality infrastructure including social housing (→ sink estates e.g.
  • Broadwater Farm, Ferry Lane, Northumberland Park Estate)
108
Q

List the players for Tottenham’s regeneration

A
  • Local Council - London Borough of Haringey
  • National Government
  • Mayor of London (and office)
  • Tottenham Hotspur Football Club
  • Other events at the stadium: NFL, Formula One
  • Transport for London (TfL)
  • Development firms e.g. UNITE (Student Housing),
  • TNCs e.g. TK Maxx, JD Sports, Aldi, NFL
  • Construction Firms
  • Residents & Community Groups (The Conservation Volunteers [TCV], Friends Group + open space/recreation)
  • Local business - e.g. D W General Wood Machinists Ltd (local wood company from 1900s)
109
Q

What factors were driving the regeneration project?

A
  • sports-led regeneration - Tottenham Hotspur Football Club had set out and was negotiating plans to build a new stadium
  • a growing waiting list for season tickets and commercial pressures to increase income to compete with their rivals both on and off the football pitch
  • the stadium project was part of wider regeneration going on in Tottenham that followed on from prolonged rioting that occurred in the area in the summer of 2011
110
Q

What were the aspirations for Tottenham’s sports-led regeneration

A
  • proposed a public square, new retail facilities, w homes on the site of the existing football ground, establishment of a university technical college and an increased role for the Tottenham Hotspur Foundation - a charity connected to the football club, (THFC website: new stadium plans).
  • As part of the stadium project, Haringey Council also proposed to build a walkway to connect the new stadium with a redeveloped train station on the other side of the High Road
111
Q

Identify all the stakeholders named in the process

A
  • Tottenham Hotspur Spur Football Club
  • Landowners
  • Businesses & local residents
  • Haringey council
112
Q

What were the main issues driving opposition to the plans?
-how the plans would affect the community

A
  • Local residents and owners of businesses, esp those under threat of compulsory purchase orders for their property, became a further important trigger for these stakeholders to devise strategies to gain greater influence on the stadium-led regeneration plans
  • “social engineering”, “social cleansing” and “gentrification”
  • These issues were part of the context of the regeneration and the potential for the same resentment over the lack of social or affordable housing still exists
113
Q

What were the main issues driving opposition to the plans?
-who was driving plans

A
  • Concerns over governance and transparency
  • Many local people felt excluded from the planning process
  • The feelings of exclusion were increased when it was confirmed that local councillors had attended a property conference in Cannes in 2014 with property developers covering some of the costs,
114
Q

How did the realisation of lack of salience make the local community groups more effective?

A
  • The High Road West consultation in Spring 2013
  • Many of these stakeholders then understood that within the regeneration plans set out by Haringey Council for the area there were no plans for refurbishment of buildings, with only differing levels of demolition offered as part of the consultation
  • Council decided that a petition containing 1,000s of names made by local businesses and residents could not form part of the formal consultation process.
  • This triggered stakeholders to mobilise through larger groups, alliances and networks, combined with other strategies, in order to try to gain salience with Haringey Council and Tottenham Hotspur FC
115
Q

Assess the effectiveness of the ‘cockerel’ poster campaign

A
  • Individuals decided to highlight their issues with posters that expressed strong dissent about the stadium-led regeneration plans, using a cockerel, showing they possessed too much power with Haringey Council, with the poster campaign going up in the vicinity of the football ground
  • Consequently, Tottenham Hotspur FC invited the Our Tottenham group for a meeting, which did not make any progress in terms of the demands from both parties pov
  • However, by inviting the Our Tottenham group into the stadium for the meeting, the football club implicitly recognised its legitimacy, which added to the power of the group and generated a degree of urgency to their campaigning
116
Q

Give examples of some of the strategies Our Tottenham utilised in regeneration opposition

A
  • proposals to stand in local council elections
  • legal action against the council to challenge consultation processes
  • lobbying, protesting, planning, support alternative planning ideas
  • supporting groups and networks
117
Q

What other impacts did the community action have on the planning process?
-Influence on the council

A
  • Some Haringey councillors later reconsidering their own positions in 2014 on the original planning permission that had been granted to the football club in 2011
  • This shows that an alliance of relatively weak stakeholders representing multiple perspectives could convince more powerful stakeholders, such as legislators, of the desirability of that alliance’s position
118
Q

What other impacts did the community action have on the planning process?
-research

A
  • Its network of over 50 affiliated community groups during the period covered by this research.
  • Increasing collective power through a process of mobilisation in which organisations, realising their limitations, pooled resources to secure a common goal
119
Q

How did the London Assembly’s recommendations for stadium-led regeneration change as a result of the process?

A
  • greater community and stakeholder involvement
  • effective use of a stadium scheme as a community asset
  • stadium-linked housing development to be of mixed tenure
  • transparency, in line with the Local Government Transparency Code, 2014
120
Q

What adjustments were made to the Stadium Plans as a result of
stakeholder consultation? How effective were they for local community groups

A
  • It should also be noted that on 16.12.15, conditions were put into the agreed planning application for the stadium in Tottenham by Haringey Council to include the establishment and maintenance by the football club of a Business and Community Liaison Construction Group during the building of the stadium and all linked developments.
  • This did not go as far as compelling the football club or any other focal organisations to hold any regular meetings with community groups, but did require some degree of engagement through providing information in various forms to the local residents and businesses.
  • Such engagement had not been included in the previous planning permission granted in 2011, so was an improvement for stakeholders on the previous position.
121
Q

What are the benefits of genuine community stakeholder consultation?

A
  • Community participation can bring feelings of autonomy, fulfilment and purpose together with some ownership of the developments
122
Q

What are the pros and cons for regeneration focal groups in involving community organisations?

A
  • Involving stakeholders through providing them with genuine means to influence stadium-led regeneration through the attributes of power, legitimacy and urgency may seem problematic to some focal organisations,
  • but, perhaps counter-intuitively, it can lead to fewer triggers towards mobilisation and other strategies of stakeholder action
  • However within a democracy governed by the rule of law, possessing power, legitimacy and urgency may not be enough to win all of the arguments