Regions of the Brain (Final) Flashcards Preview

Spring of 2012 > Regions of the Brain (Final) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regions of the Brain (Final) Deck (30)
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0
Q

Hindbrain

A

Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla oblongata

1
Q

Superior colliculi

A

Visual reflex center

Coordinates head and eye movement when following a moving object

2
Q

Inferior colliculi

A

Auditory reflex center

Involved in startle reflex (turning head toward unexpected sound)

3
Q

Midbrain

A

Made of 4 hillocks on the corpora quadrigemina

2 superior colliculi
2 inferior colliculi

4
Q

Pons

A

Routes electrical signals back and forth between the brain and the spinal cord (afferent and efferent)

5
Q

Limbic system

A

Functional system spread throughout the forebrain
Interacts with other brain areas to influence our emotion and behavior patterns

Functional areas:
Amygdala
Cingulate gyrus

6
Q

Cerebellum

A

Second largest brain area

Aids in the coordination of:
Balance
Planning of voluntary movement (ensures smooth coordinated movements)
Direction and force of motor functions (prevents overshoot and maintains posture)
Timing and fine tuning of precise movement (ex writing)

Involved in proprioception (receives signals from receptors in muscles, joints, and tendons)

7
Q

Medulla oblongata

A

Most inferior brain region

House autonomic NS reflex center which integrates several functions
Respiratory regulation
Cardiovascular function
Swallowing reflex
Coughing
Sneezing
8
Q

Amygdala

A

Recognize angry or fearful expressions of others
Asses danger
Elicits fear response
Mostly visceral and arrector pili muscles

9
Q

Cingulate gyrus

A

Helps with the expression of emotions through body gestures, especially when frustrated or angry

10
Q

CNS

A

Brain and spinal cord

11
Q

Cerebrum

A

Largest portion of the brain
2 hemispheres and 2 layers

Gray matter
White matter
Basal nuclei

12
Q

Sleep

A

Regulates circadian rhythm in response to daylight

Via the pineal gland and the hormone melatonin

13
Q

Temperature

A

Sweating when hot, shivering when cold

14
Q

Controls emotional behavior and response

A

Fear, pleasure, pain, rage, sex drive

15
Q

Dopamine

A

An inhibitory neurotransmitter

16
Q

Basal nuclei

A

Gray matter embedded in white matter
Suppresses useless movement patterns

Defect in these cells in associated with Parkinson’s disease

17
Q

Food intake

A

Registers food intake and satiety

18
Q

Gray matter (cerebral cortex)

A

Outer layer
Gray in color due to presence of cell bodies (nuclei)

Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

19
Q

Pituitary gland control

A

Synthesizes the hormones that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary

Regulates the release of hormones synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary

20
Q

Parkinson’s disease

A

Cells of the basal nuclei called substantia nigra secrete dopamine
Defective cells have a much decreased ability to secrete dopamine

Without dopamines inhibitory effects, other cells of the basal nuclei become overly active and course continuous output of excitatory signals to the motor cortex

Common treatment: L-dopa, body converts into dopamine

21
Q

White matter

A
Inner layer (deep cortex)
White in color due to the presence of un myelinated atoms

Responsible for the communication between the cerebral areas
Ex corpus collosum (connects corresponding brain areas of two hemispheres)

22
Q

Occipital lobe

A

Located posteriorly

Visual reception

23
Q

Forebrain

A

Cerebrum
Thalamus
Hypothalamus

24
Q

Parietal lobe (sensory cortex)

A

Receives and processes sensory information

Touch, pressure, temperature

25
Q

Thalamus

A

Receives all incoming sensory signals and routes them to the correct brain areas

Houses “pain center”, receptive area for information from Nociceptors

26
Q

Water intake

A

Location of osmo receptors

Sense saltiness of body fluids when receptors are stimulated

27
Q

Temporal lobe

A

Located laterally
Receives auditory information
Olfactory reception
Gustatory reception (taste)

28
Q

Hypothalamus

A

Integration center for homeostatic functions (works closely with medulla oblongata)

Made of a distinct collection of nuclei that control
Temperature
Food intake
Water intake
Sleep
Pituitary gland control
Emotional behavior and response
29
Q

Frontal lobe (motor cortex)

A

Most anterior
Controls voluntary motor activity
Allows for speaking ability

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