Test 3 (Final) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 (Final) Deck (121)
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0
Q

Parasympathetic NS

A

Rest and digest
Vegetative functions
Decrease HR, decrease BP, increase digestive function
Conserves energy

1
Q

Almost all viscera is innervated by ________ the parasympathetic and the sympathetic systems

A

Both

2
Q

Myelin

A

Fatty protien that coats the axon
Functions to speed the conduction of the APs
Gaps between the myelin are called nodes of panvier
The AP jumps from node to node via saltatory conduction

3
Q

Axon

A

Conducting zone

Conducts/propagates the APs

4
Q

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

A

All neural tissue outside of the CNS
Consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves

Sensory and motor

5
Q

Soma

A

Cell body of a neuron
Contains the nucleus and all other organelles
CNS= nuclei
PNS= ganglia

6
Q

Somatic NS

A

System of motor neurons that conduct AP from CNS to skeletal muscle

7
Q

Dendrites

A

Input zone

Receive signals

8
Q

Axon hillock

A

Trigger zone
Sums incoming signals (inhibitory and excitatory)
Generates AP if threshold is reached

9
Q

Sensory/afferent system

A

Carries signals from sensory receptors to CNS (input)

10
Q

Central nervous system (CNS)

A

Brain and spinal cord

Command center that receives information form sensory receptors

11
Q

Propogate

A

To reproduce and spread

12
Q

Axonal/terminal branches

A

Carry the AP to several extensions

The AP remains the same strength in all the branches

13
Q

Sympathetic NS

A

Fight or flight
Energetic functions
Increase HR, increase BP, decrease digestive function

14
Q

Autonomic NS

A

Visceral nerve fibers that conduct AP from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

15
Q

Neurons/nerve cells

A

Highly specialized to conduct APs throughout the body
Lose the ability to divide and reproduce at maturity (have extreme longevity)
Very high metabolic rate therefore they need a constant supply of oxygen and glucose to prevent irreversible damage

16
Q

Axon terminals

A

Secretory zone

Release of neurotransmitters/neurohormones to communicate with another neuron, muscle, or gland

17
Q

Motor/efferent

A

Carries signals from the CNS to effector organs
Results in the contraction of muscle or glandular secretion

Somatic NS and autonomic NS

18
Q

Anticholinergics

A

Ah receptor antagonist

Ex. Atropine
Curare

19
Q

Curare

A

N2 receptor antagonist
Decrease in skeletal muscle activity
Best know for its uses as an arrow poison in south America

Drug causes paralysis

20
Q

Neostigmine

A

Used to treat myasthenia gravis
Autoimmune disease where N2 receptors on skeletal tissue are destroyed

Drug allows Ach to increase stimulation of functioning N2 receptors

21
Q

Antiadrenergics

A

Adrenergic receptor antagonists
Blocks sympathetic response

Ex. Propranolol
Hytin

22
Q

Physostigmine

A

Used to treat digestive disorders that result in a decrease in gut motility

Increase gut activity (M3)

23
Q

Propranolol

A

Beta1 receptor blocker
Treatment for high blood pressure

Drug causes a decrease I’m HR, which leads o a decrease in BP

24
Q

Parasympathomimetics

A

Muscarinic receptor agonists
Similar in structure to Ach
Cause parasympathetic response

Ex. Pilocarpine

25
Q

Ach-esterase inhibitors

A

Pent the breakdown of Ach allowing it to exert its effects for a longer period of time

Ex. Physostigmine
Neostigmine

26
Q

Agonist

A

Binds to a receptor and elicits a response

27
Q

Pilocarpine

A

Used to treat glaucoma
Condition caused by The compression of the optic nerve by excess fluid

Drug induces contraction of the muscle in the eye (ciliary) which aids the fluid drainage (M3)

28
Q

Atropine

A

Muscarinic receptor blocker
Blocks the parasympathetic response
Used to reduce salivation Nd mucus production in surgical patients

Drug decreases glandular secretory activity (M3)

29
Q

Hytin

A

Alpha1 receptor blocker
Treatment for tissue hypoxia

Drug causes vasodilation of blood vessels, increase blood flow

30
Q

Sympathomimetics

A

Adnergic receptor agonists
Similar in structure to epinephrine and neuroepinephrine
Elicit a sympathetic response

Ex. Ventolin

31
Q

Antagonist

A

Binds to a receptor and blocks a response

32
Q

Ventolin

A

Used as a treatment for asthma

Drug causes relaxation of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchioles (Beta2)

33
Q

Postsynaptic cell

A

The receiving structure

34
Q

Each AP is _______, APs _______ decrease on intensity during propagation

A

Identical

Do not

35
Q

Neuro- neuronal synapse

A

One neuron to another neuron

36
Q

Chemical synapses

A

Much more common
Specialized for the release and reception of neurotransmitters and neurohormones
Convert electrical signals into chemical signals

37
Q

Neuro-glandular synapse

A

One neuron to a gland

38
Q

Chemical synapse

Convert electrical to chemical

A

The chemical signal travels across the synapse to the post synaptic structure
And then is converted back into electrical signals

39
Q

Neuro- muscular synapse

A

One neuron to a muscle

40
Q

Functional types of synapses

A

Electrical

Chemical

41
Q

During repolarization the membrane is in

A

A relative refractory period

42
Q

The post synaptic structure can be……..

A

Excited or inhibited

43
Q

Excitatory post synaptic potential

A

NT/NH binding causes channels that allow depolarization to open
Becomes more positive on the inside
Brought closer to threshold
Usually chemically gated Na+ ion channels (influx)

44
Q

As the AP travels down the length of the axon

A

It is newly generated at each patch of the membrane

45
Q

Gap junctions

A

Specialized cellular adhesions

46
Q

Relative refractory period

A

A 2nd AP can be generated on top of the first if the stimulus is strong enough

47
Q

Inhibitory post synaptic potential

A

NT/NH binding causes channels that induce hyperpolarization to open
Becomes more negative on he inside
Taken further from threshold
Can be chemically gated K+ ion channels (eflux) or chemically gated Cl- ion channels (influx)

48
Q

Electrical synapses

A

Joined by gap junctions
Allow electricity to flow quickly from cell to cell

Ex. In the heart

49
Q

Presynaptic cell

A

The neuron conducting signals toward the synapse

Info sender

50
Q

Absolute refractory period

A

Cannot respond to further stimulation

No matter how strong

51
Q

Once threshold is reached a _______ AP is generated. It _______ possible to produce a partial AP

A

Complete

Is not

52
Q

Synapse

A

The junction where information is transferred from

53
Q

During depolarization the membrane is in

A

An absolute refractory period

54
Q

Postganglionic fiber

A

Neuron whose cell body lies in the PNS
Binds to the NT released from the postganglionic fiber
Axon extends to the effector organ
Releases NT that bind to the effector organ

55
Q

Function of the parasympathetic NS

A

Rest and digest
Vegetative and Maintance activities
Conservation of ATP

Ex. Decrease HR, decrease BP, increase digestive function

56
Q

Location of ganglia (origin of postganglionic fiber)

A

Sympathetic- sympathetic ganglionchain
Collateral ganglion
Adrenal medulla
Parasympathetic- terminal ganglion

57
Q

Digestive tract smooth muscle

A

P- increase in motility (M3)
S- decrease in motility (Alpha2, Beta2)
Increase contraction of sphinctors (Alpha1)

58
Q

N2

A

On sarcolemma of skeletal tissue (depolarization)

59
Q

Muscatinic receptors

A

Receptor stimulation by ch can result in an excitatory or inhibitory response depending on the receptor and the target organ
M1
M2
M3

60
Q

Neurotransmitters

A

Somatic- Ach

Autonomic- Ach, epinephrine, neuroepinephrine

61
Q

Esophageal plexus

A

Innervates the esophagus

62
Q

Preganglionic sympathetic fiber releases Ach which binds to N1 receptors on medullary tissue

A

This causes a release of epinephrine and neuroepinephrine into the blood stream
(system wide sympathetic response)

63
Q

Cardiac plexus

A

Innervates the heart

64
Q

Adrenal medulla

A

Internal portion of the adrenal gland

65
Q

Nicotinic receptor

A

Receptor stimulation by Ach is always excitatory
N1
N2

66
Q

Glassopharyngeal (9)

A

Parotid salivary gland

67
Q

Vagus (10)

A
90% of the parasympathetic supply
Branches into the
Cardiac plexus
Pulmonary plexus
Esophageal plexus
Descending aortic plexus
68
Q

Cholinergic receptors

A

Bind and respond to Ach

Nicotinic 1&2
Muscarinic 1,2,&3

69
Q

Origin sites of preganglionic fibers

A

Sympathetic- thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord (T1-L2)

Parasympathetic- cranial and spinal nerves

70
Q

Some preganglionic fibers synapse

A

With the adrenal medulla

71
Q

Sympathetic ganglionchainq

A

Close to the spinal cord

72
Q

M3

A

Located on smooth muscle and glands

Excitatory

73
Q

Facial (7)

A

Nasal glands
Lacrimal glands
Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands

74
Q

M1

A

Located on neural tissue

Excitatory

75
Q

Cholinergic fibersq

A

Fibers that release Ach

76
Q

Adrenerhic fibers

A

Neurons that release epinephrine and neuroepinephrine

77
Q

Descending aortic plexus

A

Innervates most abdominal viscera

78
Q

Heart

A

P- decrease in HR (M2)

S- increase in HR (Beta1)

79
Q

Eye

A

P- pupil constriction via contraction of the circular muscle of the iris (M3)
S- pupil dilation via the contraction of the radial muscle of the iris (Alpha1)

80
Q

Sphinctor

A

Cuff of smooth muscle between one organ and the next

81
Q

Dual innervation

A

Most viscera is innervated by both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic NS

82
Q

Alpha

A

Stimulation is generally excitatory
Except alpha2 on gut muscle

Alpha1
Alpha2

83
Q

M2

A

Located on heart

Inhibitory (decrease muscle contraction)

84
Q

N1

A

On all postganglionic cell bodies (at all ganglia in ANS)

On adrenal medulla

85
Q

Adrenergic receptors

A

Binds and respond to epinephrine and neuroepinephrine

Alpha 1&2
Beta 1&2

86
Q

Preganglionic fibers

A

Neuron whose cell body lies in the CNS

Releases NT that across a Neuro-neuronal synapse and binds with a second neuron

87
Q

Digestive glands

A

P- increase in secretory activity (M3)

S- decrease in secretory activity (Beta2)

88
Q

Function of the sympathetic NS

A

Fight or flight
Prepares body to deal with an energetic situation
Uses ATP

Ex. Increase HR, increase BP, decrease digestive function

89
Q

The efferent division is divided into two parts

A

Somatic

Autonomic

90
Q

Liver

A

P- no innervation

S- glycogen breakdown (Beta2)

91
Q

Terminal ganglion

A

Close to the effector organ

92
Q

Pathway

A

Somatic- single neuron

Autonomic- 2 neuron chain with a synapse in between

93
Q

Collateral ganglion

A

Midway between the spinal cord and the effector organ

94
Q

Affectors

A

Somatic- skeletal muscle

Autonomic- smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, viscera

95
Q

Blood vessel smooth muscle

A

P- no innervation
BV serving the external genetalia (M3)
S- blood vessel vaso-constriction (Alpha1)

96
Q

Autonomic tone

A

One division is exhibiting more tone depending on what the body needs

97
Q

Parasympathetic and sympathetic ______ each other and _______ are active all the time

A

Oppose

Both

98
Q

Pulmonary plexus

A

Innervates the lungs and bronchi

99
Q

Respiratory system

A

P- contraction of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchioles (M3)
S- relaxation of the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchioles (Beta2)

100
Q

Beta

A

Stimulation is generally inhibitory
Except beta1 on the heart

Beta1
Beta2

101
Q

Occulomotor (3)

A

Smooth muscle of the eye that influences pupil size and eyeball movement

102
Q

Neurotransmitter effect on target cell

A

Somatic- always excitatory

Autonomic- excitatory or inhibitory

103
Q

Autonomic NS is divided into two parts

A

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

104
Q

Sacral region of the spinal cord Innervates:

A

Distal half of the large intestine
Urinary bladder
Reproductive organs

105
Q

Axon diameter

A

The larger the diameter the faster the speed of the AP conduction

Large diameter offers less resistance to the electrical flow

106
Q

Two factors that influence the rate of AP conduction

A

Axon diameter

Degree of myelination

107
Q

Group C fibers

A

Slowest
Autonomic NS/visceral
Smallest in diameter
Unmyelinated

108
Q

Central process

A

Enter the CNS

109
Q

Sensory/afferent

A

Most are unipolar or bipolar

Transmit APs from sensory receptors in the skin and viscera toward the CNS

110
Q

Degree of myelination

A

Myelinated axons exhibit “saltatory conduction”

Unmyelinated axons exhibit “continuous conduction”

111
Q

Functional classification

A

Baed on the direction the AP travels in relation to the CNS

Sensory/afferent
Internuerons
Motor/efferent

112
Q

Multipolar neurons

A

3 or more processes coming from the cell body
Most common type
ALL stomatic efferent types

113
Q

Bipolar neurons

A

1 axon and 1 dendrite coming from the cell body (dendrite may branch)

Rare and specialized
Receptors in the retina and olfactory mucosa

114
Q

Unipolar neurons

A

1 process coming from the cell body that divides into two branches
Peripheral process
Central process

Most sensory neurons

115
Q

Group A fibers

A

Fastest
Somatic fibers tha there the skin, skeletal muscle, and joints
Largest in diameter
Heavily myelinated

116
Q

Peripheral process

A

Associated with sensory receptors

117
Q

Internuerons

A

Most are multipolar
Live entirely within the CNS
Shuttle signals through e CNS pathways where integration takes place
Make up 99% of the neuronal population

118
Q

Group B fibers

A

Autonomic NS/visceral
Intermediate diameter
Lightly/moderately myelinated

119
Q

Structural classification

A

Based on the number of processes coming from the cell body

Multipolar neurons
Bipolar neurons
Unipolar neurons

120
Q

Motor/efferent

A

All are multipolar

Transmit APs from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)

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