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Flashcards in Test 1 (Final) Deck (119)
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0
Q

Stratum basalt

A
Basal layer
5th layer
One layer of rapidly dividing cells
Has melanacytes
Has merkel discs
1
Q

Lamellar bodies

A

Produce lamellated granules

Which secrete the glycolipids

2
Q

1st degree burn

A

Only on the epidermis
Red and painful
Heals in a week without scarring

3
Q

Reticular layer

A

2nd layer of dermis
80% of the dermis
Dense irregular connective tissue with large bundles of collagen and elastin

4
Q

Malignant melanoma

A

Least common
Arises from melanocytes
Develops as a large, flat, spreading sore, or a lump under the skin
Metastasis is common, usually fatal

5
Q

Papillary layer

A

1st layer of dermis
Immediately below that stratum basale
Areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastin
Dermal papillae on palms form fingerprints

6
Q

Merkel discs

A

Touch receptors

7
Q

Squamous cell carcinoma

A

Cells in the stratum spinosum continue unregulated cell growth

Rarely the tumor migrates from the epidermis to the dermis and can metastasize

8
Q

Integumentary system functions

A

Protection
Body temperature regulation
Sensation

9
Q

The skin

A

Largest organ of the body

Composed of epidermis and dermis

10
Q

Stratum corneum

A

Top layer of epidermis
Hard layer
20-30 layers of dead cells filled with keratin
Water proofing glycolipids

11
Q

Dermis

A
Dense irregular connective tissue
Has:
Blood vessels
Nerve endings
Hair follicles
Glands
Smooth muscle
12
Q

Stratum granulosum

A

Granular layer
3rd layer
3-5 layers of cells that are alive but dying

13
Q

2nd degree burn

A
Epidermis and dermis are damaged
Red and painful
Edema (swelling) usually develops
Blisters develop
Heal in 1-2 weeks, scarring depends on extent of dermal damage
14
Q

Sebaceous gland

A

Present everywhere except palms and soles
Secretes sebrum
Softens and lubricates hair and skin

15
Q

Stratum spinosum

A
Spiny layer
4th layer
5-7 layers of living cells
Has melanin granules
Has langerhan's cells
16
Q

Langerhan’s cells

A

Cells of the immune system that have migrated from the bone marrow

17
Q

3rd degree burn

A

Epidermis and dermis are completely destroyed
Skin can only regenerate from the edges
Skin grafts are often necessary

18
Q

Basal cell carcinoma

A

Least malignant
Most common
Begins in the stratum basale
Tissue destruction produces an ulcer

Surgical removal or radiation therapy

19
Q

Meissner’s corpuscles

A

Touch receptor in dermis

20
Q

Melanacyte

A

Produces melanin granules

21
Q

Pacinian corpuscles

A

Pressure receptors in dermis

22
Q

Stratum lucidum

A

Clear layer
2nd layer
2-3 layers of dead cells filled with keratin
Only found in hard skin (soles, palms)

23
Q

Epidermis

A

Outermost
Stratified squamous epithelium
Most cells produce keratin

24
Q

Thermoceptors

A

Temperature receptors in Deimos

25
Q

Keratinacyte

A

Produce granules of keratohyaline

Which secrete keratin

26
Q

Merocrine/eccrine

A

Sweat glands
Most common
Secretory portion is coiled deep in the dermis
Releasing duct extends to the surface of the epidermis
Secretes sweat made of H2O and salt

27
Q

Nociceptors

A

Pain receptor in dermis

28
Q

Protection

A

Chemical barrier
Physical barrier
Biological barrier

29
Q

Anterior

A

In front of, toward the front

Ventral

30
Q

Role of a Na+/K+ pump

A

Actively kick out the Na+ that has passively moved in
Actively pull in the K+ that has passively moved out

Maintains differential concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ that store energy through nerve and muscle cell function

31
Q

Proteins

A

45-50%

Suspended within the membrane

32
Q

Contraction is accomplished by the intersection of cellular contractile proteins called

A

Actin and myosin

33
Q

Visceral plura

A

Covers the surface of the lungs

34
Q

Involuntary

A

Unconsciously controlled

35
Q

Carbohydrates

A
CHO+lipid= glycolipid
CHO+protein= glycoprotein
36
Q

Stratified tissue

A

Multiple layers of cells

37
Q

Parasagittal

A

Unequal halves

38
Q

Superficial

A

Toward the body’s surface

External

39
Q

Basal surface

A

Opposite apical
In contact with the structure that the tissue is covering or lining
Associated with a basement membrane

40
Q

Peripheral protein

A

Attached to either the inner or the outer surface of the membrane

41
Q

Developmental anatomy

A

Study of structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood

42
Q

Passive transport

A

Doesn’t require energy (ATP)

Movement of salutes down the concentration gradient

43
Q

Deep

A

Away from the body’s surface

Internal

44
Q

Serous membranes

A

Double membrane that; covers organs, lines cavity walls, produces lubricating fluids

45
Q

Simple diffusion

A

Result of the constant random motion of all atoms and molecules in a solution

Rate of diffusion increases as temperature increases
Rate of diffusion decreases as molecule size increases

46
Q

Parietal paracardium

A

Lines the paracardial cavity

47
Q

General characteristics of pm

A

Outermost component of a cell
Responsible for the ability of a cell to connect, recognize, and communicate with each other
Inside-intracellular
Outside-extra cellular

48
Q

Extracellular matrix

A

Non living structural portion of tissue that surrounds and separates living cells

49
Q

Histology

A

Examines micro-thin slivers of tissue, have usually been stained, fixed, and mounted on a microscope slide

50
Q

Serous fluid

A

Thin layer of fluid between serosas

51
Q

Facilitated diffusion

A

The diffusing surface binds with a carrier protein on either side of the plasma membrane

52
Q

Cytology

A

Examines structural features of cells

53
Q

Smooth muscle

A

Bands are not visible

54
Q

Primary active transport

A

Na+/K+ pump
Moves sodium and potassium against their concentration gradient
More sodium in the ECF, more potassium in the ICF
3 Na move out
2 K move in

55
Q

Transverse plane

A

Horizontal plane dividing the body into superior and inferior halves, top and bottom

56
Q

Classification based on

A

Structure of the cell
Composition of non cellular substances that surround the cell
Cell function

57
Q

Osmosis

A

The movement of water and area where there are less solutes to an area where there are more solutes

58
Q

Parietal plura

A

Lines the walls of the plural cavities

59
Q

All connective tissue is derived from the same embryonic tissue type

A

Mesenchyme

60
Q

Cartilage (IM)

A

Chondroblast, chondrocyte

61
Q

Cardiac muscle

A

Found only in the heart
Cells are mononucleate

Striated, involuntary

62
Q

Positron emission tomographic scan (PET)

A

Identifies the metabolic states of various tissues

Glucose is radioactively labeled, the glucose decays and gives off positrons, positrons collide with electrons giving off gamma rays, gamma rays pinpoint the cells that are metabolically active

63
Q

Proximal

A

Close to the attachment of a limb to the body

64
Q

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

A

Radio waves are directed at a patient lying Ina chamber surrounded internally by a large electromagnetic field
H+ protons align, and then the radio waves are turned off and the ions return to their original place producing an image

65
Q

Nervous tissue

A

Found in brain, spinal cord, and fibers extending from these areas
Controls body functions through electrical signals called action potentials

66
Q

Prone

A

Laying on stomach, face down

67
Q

Computed tomographic scan (CT)

A

A low intensity x-ray tube is rotated through a 360 degree arc around the patient and the images are fed to a computer

68
Q

Collagen fibers

A

Tick fibrous protein
Extremely strong
Most abundant

69
Q

Lateral

A

Away from the midline, on the outer side of

70
Q

Hypertonic solution

A

The solution with more solutes

71
Q

Supine

A

Laying flat on your back, face up

72
Q

Distal

A

Further from the point of attachment of a limb to the body

73
Q

Basement membrane

A

Extra cellular material that is secreted by the epithelial cells

74
Q

Active transport

A
Requires energy (ATP)
Moving solutes against the gradient
75
Q

Striated

A

Visible microscopic bands of contractile proteins

76
Q

Parietal serosa

A

Membrane that lines cavity walls

77
Q

Visceral peritoneum

A

Covers the surface of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity

78
Q

Embryology

A

Studies changes from conception to the end of the 8th week of development

Most birth defects occur in this period

79
Q

Frontal plane

A

Vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior halves, front and back

80
Q

Midsaggital

A

Equal halves

81
Q

Regional anatomy

A

Body structures in one particular region of the body are examined at the same time

82
Q

Superior

A

Toward the head, above

Cranial, Cephalic

83
Q

Posterior

A

Back of body, behind

Dorsal

84
Q

Voluntary

A

Consciously controlled

85
Q

Apical surface

A

Exposed to the body exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ
Can have microvilli
Ca have cilia

86
Q

Visceral serosa

A

Membrane that covers the organs

87
Q

Hypotonic solution

A

The solution with less solutes

88
Q

Visceral paracardium

A

Covers the heart surface

89
Q

Sagittal plane

A

Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves

90
Q

Systemic anatomy

A

Each of the body’s 11 systems are studied separately

91
Q

Radiological anatomy

A

Study of anatomy using x-ray technology

92
Q

Gross/macroscopic anatomy

A

Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye

93
Q

Inferior

A

Away from head, below

Caudel

94
Q

Muscle

A

Responsible for movement

Contracts/shortens in response to electrical signals

95
Q

Neurons/nerve cells

A

Actual conducting cells

Produce action potential

96
Q

Functions of proteins

A

Attachment sites
Ion channels
Receptor molecules
Marker molecules

97
Q

Elastic

A

Made of elastin
Provides recoil ability

Skin, lungs, blood vessels

98
Q

Epithelial

A

Covers body surfaces and lines cavities
Forms some glands

Apical and basal surfaces

Functions: protection (skin), secretion (sweat glands), absorption (intestinal lining)

99
Q

Parietal peritoneum

A

Lina the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity

100
Q

Appendicular region

A

Appendages, limbs, and their girdles

101
Q

Reticular fibers

A

Thin fibrous protein
Forms a supportive network around lymphatic tissue

Spleen, lymph nodes

102
Q

Loose/dense (IM)

A

Fibroblast, fibrocyte

103
Q

Integral protein

A

Inserted all the way through the membrane, can communicate with ICF and ECF at the same time

104
Q

Lipids

A

40-50%
Phospholipids- lipid bilayer
Cholesterol- interspersed between phospholipids, prevents fatty acids from sticking together, maintains fluidity of the membrane

105
Q

Ultrasound/sonography

A

High frequency sound waves strike internal organs and bounce back to a receiver on the skin

106
Q

Smooth muscle properties

A

Found in the walls of hollow organs (small intestine, blood vessels)
Cells are mononucleate

Smooth, involuntary

107
Q

Rating membrane potential

A

The charge on an excitable (nerve, muscle) cells membrane when it is inactive
Usually -90mv to -70mv
The - means the inside of the cell is more negative than the outside

At rmp the cell is said to be polarized (separation of charges exists)

108
Q

Axial region

A

Head, neck, trunk

109
Q

Simple tissue

A

One layer of cells

110
Q

Levels of structural organization

A
Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
111
Q

4 types of tissue

A

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

112
Q

Neuroglia

A

Non conducting support cells

Provide insulation and protection to neurons

113
Q

Important facts of osmosis

A

Water will always move from hypo to hyper
Shrink=crenate
Burst=Lysenko

114
Q

Microscopic anatomy

A

Study of structures too small to be seen using the naked eye, with a microscope

115
Q

Negativity inside the cell is due to

A

At rest the membrane is more permeable to the K+ than Na+

There is a large concentration of intracellular negatively charged proteins that are impermeable

116
Q

Skeletal muscle

A

Packages in connective tissue sheets that are attached to bone
Cells are multinucleate

Striated, voluntary

117
Q

Medial

A

Toward the middle of the body, on the inner side of

118
Q

Blood (IM)

A

Hemopoietic stem cell

Erythrocyte (rbc)
Leukocyte (WBC)

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