Nervous System Fundamentals (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

Spring of 2012 > Nervous System Fundamentals (Exam 3) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Fundamentals (Exam 3) Deck (25)
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0
Q

Central nervous system (CNS)

A

Brain and spinal cord

Command center that receives information form sensory receptors

1
Q

Functions of the ns

A

Monitor sensory input (input is a collection of stimuli)
Integrate input (process the stimuli and decide on an appropriate response)
Initiate more output (activate the effector organs)

2
Q

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

A

All neural tissue outside of the CNS
Consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves

Sensory and motor

3
Q

Sensory/afferent system

A

Carries signals from sensory receptors to CNS (input)

4
Q

Motor/efferent

A

Carries signals from the CNS to effector organs
Results in the contraction of muscle or glandular secretion

Somatic NS and autonomic NS

5
Q

Somatic NS

A

System of motor neurons that conduct AP from CNS to skeletal muscle

6
Q

Autonomic NS

A

Visceral nerve fibers that conduct AP from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

7
Q

Parasympathetic NS

A

Rest and digest
Vegetative functions
Decrease HR, decrease BP, increase digestive function
Conserves energy

8
Q

Sympathetic NS

A

Fight or flight
Energetic functions
Increase HR, increase BP, decrease digestive function

9
Q

Almost all viscera is innervated by ________ the parasympathetic and the sympathetic systems

A

Both

10
Q

Neuroglia/glial cells

A

Support cells of the NS

Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal cells
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann cells
11
Q

Astrocytes

A

Most abundant
Anchor neurons to blood vessels (facilitating gas and nutrient exchange)
Soak up excess K+ the by helping to maintain RMP
Recycle released neurotransmitters

12
Q

Microglia

A

Differentiate into macrophages

13
Q

Epndymal cells

A

Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord that contain cerebral fluid (CSF)
Most have cilia that help CSF circulation

14
Q

Oligodendrocytes

A

Produce myelin around the axons of neurons in the CNS

15
Q

Schwann cells

A

Produce myelin around the axons of neurons in the CNS

16
Q

Neurons/nerve cells

A

Highly specialized to conduct APs throughout the body
Lose the ability to divide and reproduce at maturity (have extreme longevity)
Very high metabolic rate therefore they need a constant supply of oxygen and glucose to prevent irreversible damage

17
Q

Soma

A

Cell body of a neuron
Contains the nucleus and all other organelles
CNS= nuclei
PNS= ganglia

18
Q

Dendrites

A

Input zone

Receive signals

19
Q

Axon hillock

A

Trigger zone
Sums incoming signals (inhibitory and excitatory)
Generates AP if threshold is reached

20
Q

Axon

A

Conducting zone

Conducts/propagates the APs

21
Q

Propogate

A

To reproduce and spread

22
Q

Axonal/terminal branches

A

Carry the AP to several extensions

The AP remains the same strength in all the branches

23
Q

Axon terminals

A

Secretory zone

Release of neurotransmitters/neurohormones to communicate with another neuron, muscle, or gland

24
Q

Myelin

A

Fatty protien that coats the axon
Functions to speed the conduction of the APs
Gaps between the myelin are called nodes of panvier
The AP jumps from node to node via saltatory conduction

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