Flashcards in Repro p. 563-567 Deck (42):
Umbilical arteries and vein are derived from ---.
What is Wharton jelly?
A gelatinous substance that provides insulation and protection within the umbilical cord. Stem cells are present in Wharton's jelly, as well as in umbilical cord blood.
number of umbilical artery/ies?
Drainage path of umbilical vein?
drains into IVC via ductus venosus
In the ---week the yolk sac forms the allantois,
----week obliteration of vitelline duct.
Urachal cyst can lead to what 2 paths?
child presents with urine discharge from umbilicus. what is the path?
Child presents with meconium discharge from umbilicus. what is the path?
Partial closure of vitelline duct has what sx?
Meckel diverticulum--> Melena, hematochezia and abdominal pain.
Meaning of this mnemonic: "1st arch is maximal."
branch of which artery?
1st Aortic Arch: Part of maxillary artery (branch of external
Meaning of this mnemonic: "Second = Stapedial."
2nd Aortic arch: Stapedial artery and hyoid artery.
Meaning of this mnemonic: "C is 3rd letter of alphabet."
3rd Aortic arch: Common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal Carotid artery.
Meaning of this mnemonic: "4th arch (4 limbs) = systemic."
4th Aortic arch: On left, aortic arch; on right, proximal part of right subclavian artery
6th aortic arch is the derivative of?
pulmonary and the pulmonary-to systemic shunt (ductus arteriosus).
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around ---- distal to ductus arteriosus.
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around ---.
right subclavian artery
"CAP" refers to what?
Covers outside to inside:
Clefts = ectoderm
Arches = mesoderm + neural crest
Pouches = endoderm
Pt presents with cyst within lateral neck, anterior to sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is Immobile during swallowing. what is the path?
Persistent cervical sinus --> branchial cleft cyst
A neural crest dysfunction causing mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities is called?
Treacher Collins syndrome
Pt presents with undersized jaw, displacement of the tongue toward the pharynx, cleft palate, and airway obstruction. what is the path?
Pierre Robin sequence
Muscle that elevates the hyoid bone is from which Branchial arch?
anterior belly of digastric --> 1st
CN used for chewing?
CN V2 and V3
What is a common name of Mayer-Rokitansky- Küster-Hauser syndrome? describe the path?
1° amenorrhea (due to a lack of uterine
development) in females with fully developed
2° sexual characteristics (functional ovaries).
In female developement --- duct degenerates and --- duct develops.
--- develops into male internal structures. Name those structures? "SEED"
--- secrete Müllerian inhibitory factor (MIF). Function of MIF?
suppresses development of paramesonephric ducts.
Name the internal female structures that arise from paramesonephric duct?
upper portion of vagina
(lower portion from urogenital sinus).
Genetically xy Pt presents with both male and female internal genitalia and male external genitalia. What embryological process was interrupted?
Degeneration of paramesonephric (Müllerian) duct (female internal genitalia) was not inhibited due to lack of Sertoli cells or Müllerian inhibitory factor.
Worried mother brought her 15 year old daughter for physical since she hasn't menstruated yet. Examination, shows a blind-ending vaginal pouch and virilization. what is the path?
inability to convert testosterone into DHT
DHT converts ----,---- into Male external genitalia and prostate
Function of SRY gene?
on Y chromosome --> produces testisdetermining factor
"Ear, tonsils, bottom-to-top" stands for?
1 2 3 3 4
3 dorsal (bottom for inferior parathyroids),
3 ventral (to = thymus),
4 (top = superior parathyroids)
Pt without parathyroid and conotruncal anomalies is suffering from what path?
what structure becomes inferior parathyroids?
what structure becomes thymus?
Dorsal wings in 4th pouch become-->
Ventral wings in 4th pouch become-->
D---> superior parathyroids.
V---> ultimobranchial body
V---> parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid.
failure of fusion of which structures causes cleft lip?
maxillary and medial nasal processes
Cleft palate—failure of fusion of the two ---- or failure of fusion of ---- with the ---- and/or ----.
lateral palatine shelves
lateral palatine shelves with the nasal septum
lateral median palatine shelf
Name the CNs with both motor and sensory components
V3, VII, IX, X
Which Branchial Arches form posterior 1⁄3 of tongue?
3 and 4
all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid are derivatives of which arch?
Arches 1 2 3 4 6 name the CN?
"M S P ACCCT"
1 --> V2, V3
4--> superior laryngeal branch of X
6--> recurrent laryngeal branc of X
Which arch becomes platySma, posterior belly of digastric?
Which arch becomes anterior belly of digastric?