research methods 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in research methods 1 & 2 Deck (52):
1

a general set of ideas about the way that the world works

theory

2

a particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking

paradigm shift

3

evidence gathered from others or self experience

anecdotal evidence

4

scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another

experiment

5

Variable manipulated by the scientist. Ex: amount of enzyme present

independent variable

6

Variable being observed by the scientist. Ex: amount of cell growth

dependent variable

7

Manipulating the independent variable within each participants to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure

within-subjects design

8

Improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced

practice effect

9

one group acts as the control group

between subjects design

10

A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results

confounding variable

11

general group of people we are trying to learn about

population

12

selected members of the population

sample

13

assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects

Random Assignment

14

effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect

the placebo effect

15

when a participant’s action in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter

participant bias

16

When participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they are receiving

blinding

17

Experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group each participant belong to

double-blind studies

18

type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values appear in a data set

histogram

19

type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in a data set

frequency distribution

20

a distribution with a characteristic smooth, bell and symmetrical-shaped curve around a single peek

normal distribution

21

the average value of a data set

mean

22

extreme points, distant from others in a data set

outliers

23

the value that appears most frequently in the set

mode

24

the centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically

median

25

is a measure of the average distance of each data point from the mean

standard deviation

26

statistics that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying populations

inferential statistics

27

A statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability that 2 samples were drawn from the same population.

T-Test

28

a value expressing the probability calculated by the t-test

P-value

29

greater than 5% probability of obtaining the data by chance

not signtificant

30

less than 5% probability of obtaining the data by chance (0.05)`

significant

31

when the difference between 2 groups is due to some true difference between the properties of the 2 groups and not simply due to random variation

statistical significance

32

A measure of the strength of the relationship between 2 variables.

correlation

33

measures the degree with which 2 variables are correlated; symbolized by the letter r.

correlation coefficient

34

+1; as one variable increases, the other variable also increases

positive correlation

35

-1; As one of the variables decreases, the other variable decreases

negative correlation

36

a feature or quality that always takes the same value across all situations

constant

37

the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct

construct validity

38

a group of individuals designed to serve as an accurate comparison in an experiment

control group

39

statistics designed to describe the data collected. Includes mean, median and standard deviation.

descriptive statistics

40

the philosophical perspective that states that knowledge should be gained by direct observation of the world as it is, as opposed to rational perspectives that used logic and reason to determine how the world ought to be

Empiricism

41

the participants in the study who receive the manipulation in regard to the independent variable.

experiment group

42

actions made by the experimenter, unintentionally or deliberately, to promote the result they hope to achieve.

experimenter bias

43

a variable that the researcher did not manipulate or measure, but that nonetheless could still affect the outcome of the experiment.

extraneous variable

44

A research tool during which the investigator asks the participant questions, often these may be structured or semi-structured in nature.

interview

45

different perspectives that emphasize different aspects of a research question.

levels of analysis

46

descriptive statistical technique for summarizing a distribution of data into a single value that represents the entire population.

measures of central tendency

47

a descriptive research method in which the researcher engages observation of behavior in real-world settings

naturalistic observation

48

a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior ex. IQ

psychological test

49

data collected from a study that has yet to be assessed using statistical analysis

raw data

50

• the measurement consistency of tests

reliability

51

the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results can be duplicated

replication

52

a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.

social desirability bias