Flashcards in research methods 1 & 2 Deck (52):

1

##
a general set of ideas about the way that the world works

###
theory

2

## a particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking

### paradigm shift

3

## evidence gathered from others or self experience

### anecdotal evidence

4

## scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another

### experiment

5

## Variable manipulated by the scientist. Ex: amount of enzyme present

### independent variable

6

##
Variable being observed by the scientist. Ex: amount of cell growth

### dependent variable

7

## Manipulating the independent variable within each participants to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure

### within-subjects design

8

## Improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced

### practice effect

9

## one group acts as the control group

### between subjects design

10

## A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results

### confounding variable

11

## general group of people we are trying to learn about

### population

12

## selected members of the population

### sample

13

## assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects

### Random Assignment

14

## effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect

### the placebo effect

15

## when a participant’s action in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter

### participant bias

16

## When participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they are receiving

### blinding

17

## Experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group each participant belong to

### double-blind studies

18

## type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values appear in a data set

### histogram

19

##
type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in a data set

### frequency distribution

20

## a distribution with a characteristic smooth, bell and symmetrical-shaped curve around a single peek

###
normal distribution

21

## the average value of a data set

### mean

22

## extreme points, distant from others in a data set

### outliers

23

## the value that appears most frequently in the set

### mode

24

##
the centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically

### median

25

## is a measure of the average distance of each data point from the mean

### standard deviation

26

## statistics that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying populations

### inferential statistics

27

## A statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability that 2 samples were drawn from the same population.

### T-Test

28

## a value expressing the probability calculated by the t-test

###
P-value

29

## greater than 5% probability of obtaining the data by chance

### not signtificant

30

## less than 5% probability of obtaining the data by chance (0.05)`

### significant

31

## when the difference between 2 groups is due to some true difference between the properties of the 2 groups and not simply due to random variation

### statistical significance

32

##
A measure of the strength of the relationship between 2 variables.

### correlation

33

##
measures the degree with which 2 variables are correlated; symbolized by the letter r.

### correlation coefficient

34

## +1; as one variable increases, the other variable also increases

### positive correlation

35

##
-1; As one of the variables decreases, the other variable decreases

### negative correlation

36

## a feature or quality that always takes the same value across all situations

### constant

37

## the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct

### construct validity

38

## a group of individuals designed to serve as an accurate comparison in an experiment

### control group

39

## statistics designed to describe the data collected. Includes mean, median and standard deviation.

### descriptive statistics

40

## the philosophical perspective that states that knowledge should be gained by direct observation of the world as it is, as opposed to rational perspectives that used logic and reason to determine how the world ought to be

### Empiricism

41

## the participants in the study who receive the manipulation in regard to the independent variable.

### experiment group

42

## actions made by the experimenter, unintentionally or deliberately, to promote the result they hope to achieve.

### experimenter bias

43

## a variable that the researcher did not manipulate or measure, but that nonetheless could still affect the outcome of the experiment.

### extraneous variable

44

## A research tool during which the investigator asks the participant questions, often these may be structured or semi-structured in nature.

### interview

45

## different perspectives that emphasize different aspects of a research question.

### levels of analysis

46

## descriptive statistical technique for summarizing a distribution of data into a single value that represents the entire population.

### measures of central tendency

47

## a descriptive research method in which the researcher engages observation of behavior in real-world settings

### naturalistic observation

48

## a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior ex. IQ

### psychological test

49

## data collected from a study that has yet to be assessed using statistical analysis

### raw data

50

##
• the measurement consistency of tests

### reliability

51

## the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results can be duplicated

### replication

52