RESP: PE, Pleural effusion, Empyema, Pneumothorax, ILD Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Medicine Block > RESP: PE, Pleural effusion, Empyema, Pneumothorax, ILD > Flashcards

Flashcards in RESP: PE, Pleural effusion, Empyema, Pneumothorax, ILD Deck (97)
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1
Q

ECG findings in PE?

A

Sinus tachycardia
“S1Q3T3” pattern of acute cor pulmonale is classic; this is termed the McGinn-White Sign.
—> A large S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead III together indicate acute right heart strain

1
Q

What is the characteristic finding on high resolution CT thorax with Interstitial Lung disease?

A

Ground glass appearance
May also be described as honeycombing

2
Q

What is the prognosis of interstitial lung disease?

A

Prognosis is poor as damage is irreversible

Management is mainly supportive

3
Q

How does Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis present?

A

Insidious onset
dry cough
Shortness of breath
over more than 3 months

4
Q

Define pulmonary embolism

A

Where a thrombus forms in the pulmonary arteries.

Usually result of DVT that has developed in legs and embolised (moved from one part of circulation to another) through the venous system

5
Q

How does pulmonary embolism affect blood flow?

A

Once in pulmonary arteries, blocks blood flow to lung tissue.

Creates strain on R side of heart

6
Q

Risk factors for PE?

A
Immobility / long flights
Pregnancy 
Obesity (>29 kg/m2)
Recent surgery (>30min procedures)
DVT or previous VTE
Contraception - OCP, hormone therapy with oestrogen 
Tumours 
Thrombophillia 
Polycythemia 
SLE (as SLE is an inflammatory condition). 
Age (40+)

Booklet has it grouped as follows:

1) Surgery - Abdo, pelvic; Knee, hip replacement, post-op
2) Obstetris - late pregnancy, C section
3) LL - fracture, varicose veins
4) Malignancy - Abdo, pelvic, mets, advanced
5) Reduced mobility
6) Previous VTE.

7
Q

Presentation of PE?

Give symptoms and signs

A

Symptoms :

Dyspnoea / SOB - most common.
Pleuritic chest pain
Cough +/- haemoptysis

Signs:

Hypoxia 
Tachycardia 
Hypotension - haemodynamic instability 
Raised RR 
Low grade fever

Note: may have S+S of a DVT - unilateral leg swelling, tenderness.

8
Q

What scoring system can be used when patient presents with S+S of PE?

A

Wells score

9
Q

What does Wells score predict?

A

The risk of a patient presenting with symptoms ACTUALLY having a DVT or PE.
Ca

10
Q

Criteria in Wells score for PE?

A

Clinical S+S of DVT?
Is PE top differential?
HR >100?
Immobilised for 3 days or surgery in last 4 weeks?
Previous PE or DVT?
Haemoptysis?
Malignancy w/ treatment within 6 months or have palliative care for it?

11
Q

Next step if Wells score outcome is: Unlikely?

A

D-dimer. If this is positive - then do CTPA

12
Q

Conditions that cause raised d-dimer?

A
DVT, PE 
Pneumonia 
Malignancy 
Heart Failure 
Surgery 
Pregnancy
13
Q

Investigations for suspected PE?

A

CTPA - IV contrast highlights pulmonary arteries
VQ scan - compare ventilation with perfusion. Used if CTPA is unsuitable. In PE, there will be deficit in perfusion.
D-dimer
Echocardiogram (if pt can not have CTPA)
FBC - thrombocytopenia, or anaemia, polycythaemia.
ECG
U+Es - for renal fuction to assess what drugs to use, and whether contrast can be used in CTPA
Coag screen - baseline before staring anticoagulant
LFTs - help choice of anticoagulant

14
Q

ABG shows respiratory alkalosis for PE. So does hyperventilation. How to differentiate these two differentials?

A

PE = resp alkalosis with low pO2.

Hyperventilation = resp alkalosis with high pO2

15
Q

Methods of thrombolysis for PE?

A

IV - use peripheral cannula

Catheter-directed thrombolysis = directly into pulmonary arteries using central catheter

16
Q

Risk of catheter-directed thrombolysis in PE?

A

Damage to pulmonary arteries

17
Q

Management of PE

A

ABCDE
Oxygen if hypoxic
Analgesia if pain
Subcut LMWH (enoxaparin, dalteparin) whilst awaiting CTPA
Confirmed PE on CTPA - long term anticoagulant needed (warfarin, doac, LMWH).

18
Q

Pt has massive PE. What is management?

A
ABCDE
Oxygen if hypoxic 
Analgesia 
Subcut LMWH while waiting for CTPA 
Thrombolysis with IV alteplase
19
Q

What is thrombolysis?

A

Inject fibrinolytic meds that break down clot rapidly.

20
Q

Examples of thrombolytic agents?

A

Alteplase
Streptokinase
Tenecteplase

21
Q

Risk of catheter-directed thrombolysis?

A

Damage to pulmonary arteries

22
Q

Absolute contraindications for thrombolysis?

A
Haemorrhagic stroke or ischaemic stroke within 6 months 
CNS neoplasia 
Recent trauma/surgery 
GI bleed less than 1month ago 
Bleeding disorder
Aortic dissection
23
Q

Relative contraindications for thrombolysis?

A

Warfarin/DOAC use
Pregnancy
Advanced liver disease
Infective endocarditis

24
Q

Presentation of pleural effusion?

A
SOB - gradual 
Pleuritic chest pain 
Non productive cough - not as common
(productive cough - only if due to pneumonia)
Tachycardia
25
Q

Investigations for pleural effusion?

A

Imaging: PA CXR. USS . Contrast CT (good for exudative effusions). ECHO (if suspect HF)

Pleural aspiration: fluid sent for pH, protein, MC&S, glucose.

Bloods: FBC. CRP, blood culture, U+Es, LFTs, bone profile, LDH, clotting

Sputum: sputum gram stain and culture

26
Q

RF for pleural effusion?

A

CCF
Malignancy
Pneumonia

Weaker RF:
SLE, RA, recent MI, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, drug induced - e.g. nitrofurantoin,

27
Q

Management for pleural effusion?

A

Ultrasound guided pleural aspiration
Conservative management if small
Chest drain

28
Q

Examination findings/ signs in pleural effusion?

A
Reduced chest movement on affected side 
Stony dull percussion 
Reduced/absent breath sounds 
Reduced vocal resonance 
Tracheal deviation
29
Q

Define exudate and transudate classification of pleural effusion

A

Exudate: Pleural protein concentration more than 30g/L

Transudate: less than 30g/L protein.

30
Q

Transudate causes of pleural effusion?

A

Transudative = fluid moving across into the pleural space

Heart Failure
Hypoalbuminaemia (nephrotic syndrome or peritoneal dialysis)
Liver cirrhosis 
Hypothyroidism 
Pulmonary embolism 
Mitral stenosis

Rare:
Meigs’ syndrome (triad of benign ovarian tumor with ascites and pleural effusion that resolves after resection of the tumor).
Constrictive pericarditis
Superior vena cava obstruction

31
Q

Exudate causes of pleural effusion?

A

Exudative = inflammation related - causes protein to leak out of tissue and into pleural space

Infection - pneumonia, TB, subphrenic abscess, TB. HIV (kaposi’s).
Malignancy - lung cancer, mets
Inflammatory causes - Connective tissue disease, RA, SLE, Pancreatitis, lymphatic disorders, PE

Rare: yellow nail syndrome, fungal infections, drugs

Z2F : main ones - lung cancer, pneumonia, RA, Tb

32
Q

Define empyema

A

Infected pleural effusion.

Z2F: suspect when pt has improving pneumonia but new or ongoing fever.
Pleural aspiration shows pus, acidic <7.2, low glucose and high LDH

33
Q

How is empyema managed?

A
  • Chest drain - remove pus.
  • antibiotics based on sensitivity - usually for 3 weeks
  • supportive care - pain relief, IV fluids, early mobilisation.

bmj bes practice

34
Q

What is a pneumothorax?

A

When air gets into the pleural space separating lung from chest wall

35
Q

Whats the difference between primary and secondary pneumothorax?

A

Primary- no underlying lung pathology

Secondary- if there is underlying lung disease

36
Q

Causes of pneumothorax?

A

Spontaneous
Trauma
Iatrogenic- lung biopsy, mechanical ventilation, central line insertion
Lung pathology- asthma, COPD

37
Q

What is catamenial pneumothorax?

A

Due to endometrisosis in the thorax. Occurs during/ after menstruation

38
Q

Presentation of pneumothorax?

A
Sudden onset:
Dyspnoea
chest pain: often pleuritic
sweating
tachypnoea
tachycardia
39
Q

Investigations for pneumothorax?

A

Erect Cxr

CT thorax for small pneumothorax and can accurately asses the size of the pneumothorax

40
Q

How do you manage a primary pneumothorax?

A

rim of air is < 2cm and the patient is not short of breath then discharge should be considered
otherwise, aspiration should be attempted

if this fails (defined as > 2 cm or still short of breath) then a chest drain should be inserted

41
Q

How do you manage a secondary pneumothorax?

A

patient is > 50 years old and the rim of air is > 2cm and/or the patient is short of breath then a chest drain should be inserted.
otherwise aspiration should be attempted if the rim of air is between 1-2cm.

If aspiration fails a chest drain should be inserted.

All patients should be admitted for at least 24 hours
if the pneumothorax is less the 1cm then the BTS guidelines suggest giving oxygen and admitting for 24 hours

42
Q

Where do you insert a chest drain?

A
Safe triangle:
5th IC space 
Mid axillary line 
anterior axillary line 
within this triangle
43
Q

What is a tension pneumothorax?

A

One way valve, not allowing air to escape, leading pressure to rise

44
Q

Typical pneumothorax pt?

A

Young, tall and thin man presenting with SOB

45
Q

Signs of tension pneumothorax?

A
Tracheal deviation AWAY from side of the pneumothorax 
Reduced air entry on affected side 
Increased resonance on affected side 
Tachycardia 
Hypotension
46
Q

Management of tension pneumothorax?

A

Insert a large bore cannula into the second IC space mid clavicular line

Then use a chest drain for definitive management

47
Q

What is a Parapneumonic effusion?

A

Parapneumonic effusions are effusions caused by an underlying pneumonia.

Simple - not infected

Complicated- effusion develops once infection has spread to the pleural space.

48
Q

How is empyema, a simple parapneumonic effusion and complicated parapneumonic effusion related?

A

Three conditions = a spectrum of pleural inflammation in response to infection.

From a simple parapneumonic effusion to empyema.

49
Q

What are RF for empyema ?

A
recent pneumonia
iatrogenic intervention in the pleural space
thorax trauma 
Immunocompromised e.g. diabetes
co-morbidities make pneumonia more likely 
lung disease 
male sex
young or old age
alcohol abuse
50
Q

If empyema or a complicated parapneumonic effusion is diagnosed what must be done urgently?

A

Insert a chest drain

+ long course of AB

if no improvement with AB and drainage - surgery or fibrinolytics

51
Q

How do causative pathogens differ from comminity acquired and hospital acquired empyema?

A

Community: Streptococcus pneumoniae, and staphylococci

Hospital: staphylococci (particularly MRSA)

52
Q

How would a pt with empyema present?

A

Constitutional symp:
Malaise, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue
Pyrexia
Rigors

Examination:
dullness at the lung base
reduced breath sounds
reduced vocal resonance 
signs of sepsis
53
Q

What investigations for empyema?

A

Bloods:
Blood cultures - AB choice
FBC - WCC count
CRP

Imaging:
CXR - see effusion, loculated effusion suggests empyema. consolidation due to pneumonia.

Special tests: 
Thoracentesis : pleaural fluid:
appearance; pus diagnostic
Odor: putrid - anaerobic
PH: <7.2
total protein context > 30 g/l
LDH level >2-3 x upper limit of serum 
Glucose
WCC - lymphocytes -TB / malignancy
 MC&S
54
Q

What is type 1 respiratory failure?

A

Pa02<8kPa; PaC02 Normal

55
Q

Causes of type 1 respiratory failure?

A
Asthma 
Congestive HF 
Pulmonary Embolism 
Pneumonia 
Pneumothorax
56
Q

What is type 2 respiratory failure?

A

Pa02<8kPa; PaC02 > 6kPa

57
Q

Causes of type 2 respiratory failure?

A

Obstructive lung disease e.g. COPD
Restrictive lung disease e.g. IDL
Depression of respiratory centre e.g. opiates
NMJ disease e.g. Guillan barre syndrome, MND
Thoracic wall disease- rib fracture

58
Q

What are you differentials for Haemoptysis : infection related?

A

Pneumonia

Tuberculosis

Bronchiectasis / CF

Cavitating lung lesion (often fungal

59
Q

What are you differentials for Haemoptysis : Malignancy related?

A

Lung cancer

metastases

60
Q

What are you differentials for Haemoptysis : Haemorrhage related?

A

Bronchial artery erosion

Vasculitis

Coagulopathy

61
Q

What are some differentials for Haemoptysis? Other (resp = clue)

A

PE!

62
Q

What is interstitial lung disease?

A

Umbrella term describing a number of conditions that affect the lung parenchyma in a diffuse manner. an umbrella term used for a large group of diseases that cause scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs.

63
Q

What are some examples of interstitial lung disease?

A

Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP)

Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP)

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis

Sarcoidosis

Several other conditions

64
Q

What are important things to cover in hx taking from a pt with ILD? Why?

A
  • comprehensive occupational / environmental history
    e. g.

inhalation of dust - Silicosis
Inhalation of asbestos - Asbestosis
Pneumoconioisis (coal workers)

65
Q

What results to do you get in PFTs for ILD?

A

Typically restrictive lung diseases on PFT’s

66
Q

What autoimmune / immunological investigations do you need to do for ILD?

(Looking for conditions associated with developing ILD)

A

ANA – connective tissue disease OR SLE

ENA – connective tissue disease

Rh F – Rheumatoid Arthritis

ANCA – Vasculitis

Anti-GBM – Pulmonary Renal disease

ACE – Sarcoidosis

Ig G to serum precipitins e.g. pigeon, budgie – Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis

HIV

67
Q

What is the most common ILD causing lung fibrosis?

A

Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP)

often idiopathic

68
Q

What findings do you see with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) and ILD?

A

`Examination : clubbing, reduced chest expansion

Auscultation: fine inspiratory crepitations (pulling Velcro slowly) – best heard basal / axillary areas

Cardiovascular – features of pulmonary
hypertension

(note L (UIP) is a form of lung disease characterised by progressive scarring of both lungs - interstitial lung disease)

69
Q

What is Extrinsic Allergic Alevolitis? (ILD)

A

Also known as Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Inhalation of organic antigen to which the individual has been sensitised

70
Q

How does Extrinsic Allergic Alevolitis? (ILD) present acutely?

A

short period from exposure - 4-8 hrs.

Usually reversible - spontaneously settle 1-3 days.

Can reocur

71
Q

How does Extrinsic Allergic Alevolitis? (ILD) present Chronically?

A

chronic exposure (months – years). Less reversible.

72
Q

What are some drug causes of ILD? Extrinsic Allergic Alevolitis?

A
Amiodarone
Bleomycin
Methotrexate
Nitrofurantoin
Penicillamin
73
Q

What is Sarcoidosis ? (ILD)

What do you see on histology?

A

Multisystem (often resp) inflammatory condition of unknown cause

50% remission, 50% progressive disease

Non-caseating granulomas on Histology

74
Q

What investigations for Sarcoidosis?

A

Definitive: tissue biopsy (e.g., lung, lymph nodes), which typically reveals non-caseating granulomas

Bedside: PFTs: restrictive pattern (fibrosis) -(obstructive- an early sign)

Bloods:
* raised ESR
* ACE (not specific or diagnostic)
* U&Es
* raised calcium levels
* lymphocytes may be reduced

Imaging:
* CXR: 4 stages of changes from Sarcoid

Cardiac involvement:
* ECG, 24 tape, ECHO, cardiac MRI

  • CT/MRI head: headaches – Neuro sarcoid
75
Q

What are ILD treatment principals?

A

Remove trigger exposure e.g. occupational / environment

Stop smoking

MDT approach – Pirfenidone to slow progression

Treatment of infective exacerbations

Oxygen if respiratory failure

Palliative care

Transplantation

76
Q

How is pleural effusion diagnosed (1st line)?

A

Do CXR

Ultrasound guided pleural aspiration

77
Q

What is the only indication for an urgent chest drain in pleural effusion?

A

If there is an underlying empyema

78
Q

pH of pleural fluid in empyema plural effusion?

A

pH <7.2

79
Q

From a US guided pleural aspiration, what is tested?

A

Biochemistry —> protein, pH, LDH

Cytology

Microbiology (including acid alkali fast bacteria)

80
Q

Disadvantage of draining all fluid from pleura without understanding Dx?

A

Draining all the fluid = prevents opportunity to take pleural biopsies.

81
Q

Options available to biopsy pleura (e.g. if malignancy is found in cytology from aspiration sample|)?

A

Thoracoscopy

CT pleural biopsy

82
Q

How to manage pleural effusion that is found to be transudate?

A

Treat underlying cause

83
Q

Pt has transudative pleural effusion. You have treated the underlying cause but pt still has effusion. What is appropriate next step?

A

Effusion has persisted even after treating underlying cause - so now need to use therapeutic aspiration/drainage

84
Q

When is Light’s criteria used?

A

If pleural protein level is between 25-35g/L

85
Q

Lights criteria to identify exudative pleural effusion?

A

Pleural fluid/Serum protein >0.5
Pleural fluid/ Serum LDH >0.6
Pleural fluid LDH >2/3rds of the upper limit of normal

86
Q

What type of shock can PE lead to ?

A

Mechanical shock

87
Q

What is pathophysiology of mechanical shock from a massive PE?

A

Embolus occludes the large pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery pressure is high. Occlusion means RV can not empty, and central venous pressure increases.

So, get reduced return of blood to the left side of the heart and there is limited filling of the left heart.
Left atrial pressure is low, so arterial BP is low, leading to shock.

88
Q

X-ray findings for ILD?

A

Fluffy appearance- reticulonodular shadowing

89
Q

Causes of ILD?

A
Medication e.g. amiodarone, bleomycin, methotrexate, nitrofurantoin 
Sacroidosis 
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis 
coal worker's pneumoconiosis
TB
90
Q

ECG findings for a PE?

A

Sinus tachycardia
“S1Q3T3” pattern of acute cor pulmonale is classic; this is termed the McGinn-White Sign.
—> A large S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead III together indicate acute right heart strain

91
Q

Stages of sarcoidosis on CXR?

A

Stage 1 - Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL)
Stage 2 - BHL with peripheral infiltrates
Stage 3 - Peripheral infiltrates alone
Stage 4 - Pulmonary fibrosis

92
Q

What is sarcoidosis?

A

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease that is characterised by the formation of granulomas, leading to widespread inflammatory changes and complications across multiple body systems.

93
Q

Signs and symptoms of Acute Sarcoidosis?

A

Signs and symptoms of acute sarcoidosis, also known as Löfgren syndrome, include:

Fever
Polyarthralgia
Erythema nodosum
Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy

94
Q

Common manifestations of Chronic Sarcoidosis?

Involving other organs / systems

A
  • Pulmonary: Dry cough, dyspnoea, reduced exercise tolerance, and crepitations on examination
  • Constitutional: Fatigue, weight loss, arthralgia, low-grade fever, lymphadenopathy, and enlarged parotid glands
  • Neurological: Meningitis, peripheral neuropathy, bilateral Bell’s palsy
  • Ocular: Uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca
  • Cardiac: Arrhythmias, restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Abdominal: Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, renal stones
  • Dermatological: Erythema nodosum, lupus pernio
95
Q

Management of sarcoidosis?

A
  • Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy alone: Usually self-limiting and often does not require treatment
  • Acute sarcoidosis: Bed rest and NSAIDs for symptom control
  • Steroid treatment: Oral or intravenous, depending on the severity of the disease
  • Immunosuppressants: Used in severe disease.
96
Q

What is a massive PE?

A
  • causes heart strain due to RV overload

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