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Flashcards in Resp System(A&P) Deck (38):
1

respiration

-02 is obtained from the environment and delivered to cells
-co2 is transported from the cells to the environment

2

pulmonary ventilation(phases of respiration)

-movement of air into and out of the lungs
-inhalation=contracting and pushing muscles down(external intercostal)
-exhalation=internal intercostal

3

external exchange of gases(phases of respiration)

-takes place in the lungs
-diffusion of 02 into the blood stream from the air in the lungs and diffusion of c02 out of the bloodstreamto the air in the lung

4

internal exchange of gases(phases of respiration)

(takes place in the tissues)
-diffusion of 02 into the cells from the bloodstream
-diffusion of co2 out of the cells and into the bloodstream

5

Upper Resp system

-nose
-pharynx
-larynx
-trachea

6

nose: nasal cavities

separated into right and left by the nasal septum
-lined with mucous membrane
-function:
-warms air
-humidifies air
-traps foreign particles
-olfactory receptors
-para nasa sinus drain into cavity
-contain 3 bony projection(conchae)
-increase surface area available to be covered by mucous membrane

7

Pharynx(throat)

-superior portion of the pharynx
-located posterior to the nasal cavity

8

Nasopharynx

-superior portion of the pharynx
-located posterior to the nasal cavity
-Eustachian tubes open into the nasopharynx(middle ear)

9

Oropharynx

-middle ear portion of the pharynx
-located posterior to the oral cavity
-lingual and palintean tonsil located in oropharynx

10

Laryngeal Pharynx

-inferior portion of the pharynx
-opens anteriorly to the larynx and posterior to the esophagus
-the uvula closes the nasopharynx during swallowing

11

Larynx(voice box)

-larynx closed by the epiglottis during swallowing
-located btw pharynx and trachea
-triangular shaped made of cartilage,ligament,muscle
-largest cartilage of larynx of the thyroid cartilage
-enlargges in adolesence male
-larynx contains the vocal cords
-vocal cords are folds of muscle that vibrate when air moves across them
-pitch of voice depends on tension exherted on the vocal cords
-nasal cavity and sinus add quality to your voice
-form words by moving muscles in pharynx, oral cavity,tongue,teeth,lips
-space btw vocal cords is glottis

12

Trachea(windpipe)

-extends from larynx to the upper part of the thoracic cavity
-anterior to the esophagus
-has c-shaped cartilage to keep it open
-lined with psuedo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium
-divided into two main stem bronchi at the carina

13

Bronchi

-each main stem bronchus enters a lung at the hills
-each mainstream bronchus divides into secondary bronchi which divide into bronchioles which keep subdividing and getting progressively smaller(bronchial tree)
-smallest subdivision is the alveolar duct

14

Lungs

-located in thoracic cavity
-extend from clavicles to diaphragm
-apex of the lung is superior
-base of lung is inferior
-surrounded by the pleura(serous membrane)
-right lung has three lobes
-left lung has two lobes
-lung tissue is very elastic

-functional unit of lung are alveoli
-each lung has million of alveoli
-alveoli=site of gas exchange
-alveolus surrounded by pulmonary capillary which allows gas exchange

-simple squamous epithelium line capillaries

15

Pulmonary ventilation

-movement of air into and out of the lungs
-2 phases inhalation and exhalation

16

Ventilation depends on

-resp muscles
-diaphragm, external intercostals and internal intercostals
-compliance: capacity of lungs to expand/contract
-surface tension and elastic recoil
-cells in the alveoli make protein called surfactant
-surfactant allows lungs to expand

17

Inhalation

-active phase of breathing
-diaphragm and external intercostal contract
making the thoracic cavity larger
-air is drawn into the lungs

18

Exhalation

-passive phase of breathing
-diaphragm and external intercostal relax making the thoracic cavity smaller
-air is expelled from the lungs

19

air

-air that we inhale(room air) is:
-24%=OXYGEN
-0.04%=CARBON DIOXIDE
-rule of 4 every liter of 02 adds 4% 02 to room air

20

Gas Exchange

movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide

21

Gas Exchange(External Exchange)
Pulmonary

-external exchange of gases happens at the level of the alveolar membrane and the pulmonary capillary membrane
-alveolar membrane is most allowing 02 to diffuse from the air in the alveoli into the bloodstream and co2 to diffuse from the bloodstream into the air in the alveoli

22

Gas Exchange(Internal Exchange)
Systemic

-internal exchange of gases happens at the level of cells in body tissue and the capillary membrane
-oxygen diffuses from the bloodstream into cells and oxygen diffuses from the cells to the bloodstream

23

Transport of Oxygen

-almost all oxygen is transported bound to hemoglobin
-oxygenated blood is 97% saturated with oxygen
-deoxygenated blood is 70% saturated with oxygen
-Fe(iron) needed to transport
-small drop in pulse ox represents large decrease in oxygenation

24

Transport of Carbon Dioxide

-most CO2 is produced by cell respiration
-most CO2 is transported by blood as bicarbonate ions
-CO2 is the acid component in blood gases

25

ABG

-Pa02=80-100
-PaCO2=35-45
Ph=7.35-7.45
Sp02=96-100%

26

Pa02

80-100

27

PaCO2

35-45

28

Ph

7.35-7.45

29

Sp02

96-100%

30

Regulation of Respiration

1)Nerve control
2)Chemical control

31

Nerve Control(Regulation of Respiration)

-medulla oblongata: resp center that control rate/depth of breathing
-phrenic nerve=branch of the vagus nerve
-diaphragm=striated muscle
-pons in hypothalamus contain centers that can modify basic patters of breathing

32

Chemical Control(Regulation of Respiration)

-respiration is driven by level of Co2 in blood
-high level of Co2(hypercapnea) triggers ventilation
-o2 level also play a role in triggering ventilation but blood 02 levels must be very low in order for that to occur

33

Normal Patterns of Ventilation

-eupnea: normal quiet breathing= 16breaths/min
-Tidal volume: volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs during eupnea=500ml
-Residual Volume: volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation=1200ml

34

Tidal volume

volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs during eupnea=500ml

35

Residual Volume

volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation=1200ml

36

Abnormal Ventilation

-Hyperventilation: rapid/deep breathing, losing co2 raising Ph, Kussmauls
-Tachypnea-rapid respirations above 20
-Bradypnea-slow respirations below 12
-Apnea-period of absence of respiration
-Dyspnea-difficulty breathing, Dyspnea on excertion
-Orthopnea-dyspnea relived by positioning
-atelectasis-incomplete expansion of lung in or part of lung

37

Pnuemothorax

-air in the pleural space
-pleural effusion-excess fluid in pleural space
-pleura edema-fluid in lungs

38

effects of aging on the resp system?

-lungs lose compliance
-lowers tidal volume
-increase risk of dyspnea on exertion
-protective mechanism of resp. system decline
-immune system decline with age
-villa becomes less efficient: risk for infection
-effects of structual changes that are brought about by: COPD
-long term exposure to harmful substances: ex: smoking and asbestos