Respiratory Flashcards Preview

STEP 1 Pharm > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (20):
1

First generation antihistamines

Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine.

Used for allergy, motion sickness, as a sleep aid.

2

First generation antihistamine toxicity

Sedating -- crosses BBB
Antimuscarinic and anti alpha adrenergic effects

Causes urinary retention, dry mouth, delirium)

3

Second generation antihistamines

Fexofenidine, cetirizine, desloratidine, loratidine

Used for allergy

Less CNS penetration

4

Guaifenesin

Expectorant that thins secretions but does not suppress gag reflex

5

N-acetyl cysteine

Mucolytic -- breaks SH bonds to break up mucous

6

Dextromethorphan

Antitussive (NMDA receptor antagonist) codeine analog. Treat with naloxone

7

Pseudoephedrine

Alpha agonist nasal decongestant

8

Pseudoephedrine side effects

CNS stimulation/anxiety and hypertension

9

Albuterol

B agonist that activates b2 which relaxes smooth muscle in airway

10

Salmeterol/formoterol

Long acting B agonists that are used for asthma prophylaxis.

11

Salmeterol/formoterol side effects

Tremor and arrhythmia

12

Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cAMP in bronchial smooth muscle.

13

Theophylline toxicity

Narrow therapeutic range, metabolized by cyp450, can cause seizures. Blocks actions of adenosine

14

Ipratropium

M3 blocker (competitive) that prevents bronchoconstriction. Also used for COPD as tiotropium

15

Beclomethasone/fluticasone

Inhibit synthesis of cytokines by inactivating NFKB (the transcription factor that induces TNF alpha). First line therapy for chronic asthma.

16

Antileukotriene drugs side effect

Montelukast/zafirlucast. Can increase liver enzymes.

17

Omalizumab

Monoclonal anti-ige antibody that binds unbound IgE and prevents binding to receptors on mast cells. used for asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long acting beta two agonists

18

Methacholine

used to challenge, drop in fev 1 more than 20 percent means asthma

19

Bosentan

Endothelin receptor antagonist to decrease pulmonary hypertension

20

Cromolyn

stabilizes mast cells and prevents degranulation