Retina and Vitreous Vol. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Retina and Vitreous Vol. 3 Deck (33):
1

How is fluorescein eliminated from the body following FA?

By the liver and as well as the kidneys via the urine

2

How long does it take to remove fluorescein from the body following FA?

24 to 36 hours

3

What percentage of fluorescein injected during FA is protein bound and can NOT be visualized during the study?

Approx. 80%

4

What form of fluorescein is visualized during FA?

Non-bound fluorescein (20%)

5

What is the wavelength of light emitted by fluorescein?

520-530 nm {green)

6

What wavelength of light excites fluorescein?

465-490 nm {blue)

7

What type of filter blocks reflected blue light and allows only green light to re-enter the camera during FA?

Yellow-green filter (e.g. barrier)

8

What prevents non-bound fluorescein from reaching the neurosensory retina or subretinal space?

RPE

9

What structures provide the inner blood-retina barrier?

Endothelial cell tight junctions

10

When does fluorescein enter the ocular circulation following injection?

Approximately 8 to 12 seconds after injection

11

When does the arteriovenous phase of FA begin following injection?

Approximately one minute after injection

12

What is considered to be the peak phase of fluorescence during FA when foveal detail is the greatest?

Arteriovenous phase

13

What causes of leakage of capillary vessels on FA in diabetic retinopathy?

Damaged capillary endothelium

14

Name 4 things that cause staining on FA.

1. Scar 2. Drusen 3. Optic nerve tissue 4.Sclera

15

When is transmission or window defect seen during FA?

During choroidal filling

16

How long does temporary yellowing of the skin and conjunctiva last after FA?

6 to 12 hours

17

How long does discoloration of the urine last after FA?

24 to 36 hours

18

What is the incidence of nausea, vomiting, or vasovagal reaction with FA?

Approx.10%

19

What is the incidence of urticarial {anaphylactoid) reactions due to FA?

Approx.1%

20

What is the incidence of anaphylactic reaction (cardiovascular shock} due to FA?

< 1 in 100,000

21

What premedication can decrease risk of urticarial reaction due to dye can help decrease risk of reaction on subsequent FA?

Antihistamines and/or corticosteroids

22

What treatment should be used if dye extravates into the skin, causing local pain during FA injection?

Ice-cold compresses

23

What is indocyanine green (ICG) angiography particularly useful in studying?

Choroidal circulation

24

How is indocyanine green metabolized?

Metabolized by the liver and excreted in the bile

25

What is the fluorescence wavelength of indocyanine green?

790-805 nm (eg.near-infrared)

26

What medication should ICG angiography be avoided if the patient is taking?

Metformin

27

What two molecules make up A2E?

Vitamin A aldehyde and ethanolamine

28

What do plaques on ICG angiography typically indicate?

Occult CNV (eg.late-staining vessels)

29

What two conditions are focal hot spots on ICG angiography typically indicative of?

1. Retinal angiomatous proliferations (RAP) 2.Polypoidal vasculopathy

30

What allergy should be asked about prior to performing ICG angiography?

Iodine or shellfish

31

Name 2 contraindications of ICG angiography.

1. Liver disease 2. Metformin use

32

What creates lipofuscin?

Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by RPE cells

33

What pigment within lipofuscin causes autofluorescence?

A2E