Flashcards in Glaucoma Vol. 2 Deck (34):
What condition is associated with hypopigmented lesions ("ash leaf spot") and red-brown macular rash of the face and chin?
Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville syndrome)
What condition is associated with causing a "bag of worms" lesion and S-shaped deformity of the upper eyelid?
Plexiform neuroma (type I neurofibromatosis)
What condition is associated with glaucoma in a child with yellow or orange papules of the head and neck?
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG)
What condition is associated with glaucoma and hyperpigmentation of the periocular skin?
Oculodermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ota)
What condition is associated with glaucoma, peg-like teeth, and maxillary hypoplasia?
What condition is associated with increased lOP, port-wine stain, and hemifacial hypertrophy?
Encephalofacial angiomatosis (eg. Sturge-Weber)
What condition is associated with increased lOP, cutaneous hemangiomas and hypertrophied limb?
What condition is associated with chronically elevated lOP and significantly dilated episcleral veins?
What medication is associated with causing black andenochrome deposits of the conjunctiva?
What condition should be suspected in a patient with glaucoma and punctate inferonasal epithelial corneal defects?
What is the cause of enlargement of the cornea in patients with congenital glaucoma?
Breaks in Descemet's membrane (Haab striae)
What type of refractive error is associated with increased risk of pigment dispersion?
What part of the angle is increased pigmentation most common?
Name 2 conditions associated with increased pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork.
1.Pigment dispersion syndrome 2. Exfoliation syndrome
What is the S-shaped eyelid deformity of type I neurofibromatosis highly associated with?
Risk of glaucoma
What is the average diameter of the optic nerve head?
Name the 3 types of retinal ganglion calls (RGC).
1.Magnocellular (M calls) 2. Parvocellular (P calls} 3. Koniocellular (bistratifiad cells}
What type of RGC have the largest dendritic field?
What is the primary function of M cells?
Detection of motion
What is the most abundant type of RGC?
P cells (approx. 80%)
What gonioscopy finding is associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome?
Anteriorly displaced Schawalbe line
What is arterial supply of the optic nerve?
Ophthalmic artery via the posterior ciliary artery
What type of cataract is associated with long-term corticosteroid use?
Posterior subcapsular cataract
How many retinal ganglion cells does the optic nerve contain?
Approx. 1.2 - 1.5 million
Where do the retinal ganglion cells synapse?
In the lateral geniculate nucleus
What is the primary function of P cells?
Color vision and fine detail
What is the primary function of koniocellular neurons?
Name the 4 layers of the optic nerve.
1.Nerve fiber 2.Prelaminar 3.Laminar 4.Retrolaminar
Where does the central retinal artery penetrate the optic nerve?
10-15 mm behind the globe
What layer of the optic nerve lies adjacent to the sclera?
Where does focal atrophy of the optic nerve most typically occur in early glaucoma?
Superior and inferior temporal poles
What type of peripapillary atrophy is associated with glaucoma?
What type of refractive error is associated with alpha-zone peripapillary?