Glaucoma Vol. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glaucoma Vol. 2 Deck (34):
1

What condition is associated with hypopigmented lesions ("ash leaf spot") and red-brown macular rash of the face and chin?

Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville syndrome)

2

What condition is associated with causing a "bag of worms" lesion and S-shaped deformity of the upper eyelid?

Plexiform neuroma (type I neurofibromatosis)

3

What condition is associated with glaucoma in a child with yellow or orange papules of the head and neck?

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG)

4

What condition is associated with glaucoma and hyperpigmentation of the periocular skin?

Oculodermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ota)

5

What condition is associated with glaucoma, peg-like teeth, and maxillary hypoplasia?

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome

6

What condition is associated with increased lOP, port-wine stain, and hemifacial hypertrophy?

Encephalofacial angiomatosis (eg. Sturge-Weber)

7

What condition is associated with increased lOP, cutaneous hemangiomas and hypertrophied limb?

Klippei-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome

8

What condition is associated with chronically elevated lOP and significantly dilated episcleral veins?

AV fistula

9

What medication is associated with causing black andenochrome deposits of the conjunctiva?

Epinephrine

10

What condition should be suspected in a patient with glaucoma and punctate inferonasal epithelial corneal defects?

Medication toxicity

11

What is the cause of enlargement of the cornea in patients with congenital glaucoma?

Breaks in Descemet's membrane (Haab striae)

12

What type of refractive error is associated with increased risk of pigment dispersion?

Myopia

13

What part of the angle is increased pigmentation most common?

Inferior angle

14

Name 2 conditions associated with increased pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork.

1.Pigment dispersion syndrome 2. Exfoliation syndrome

15

What is the S-shaped eyelid deformity of type I neurofibromatosis highly associated with?

Risk of glaucoma

16

What is the average diameter of the optic nerve head?

1.5 mm

17

Name the 3 types of retinal ganglion calls (RGC).

1.Magnocellular (M calls) 2. Parvocellular (P calls} 3. Koniocellular (bistratifiad cells}

18

What type of RGC have the largest dendritic field?

M cells

19

What is the primary function of M cells?

Detection of motion

20

What is the most abundant type of RGC?

P cells (approx. 80%)

21

What gonioscopy finding is associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome?

Anteriorly displaced Schawalbe line

22

What is arterial supply of the optic nerve?

Ophthalmic artery via the posterior ciliary artery

23

What type of cataract is associated with long-term corticosteroid use?

Posterior subcapsular cataract

24

How many retinal ganglion cells does the optic nerve contain?

Approx. 1.2 - 1.5 million

25

Where do the retinal ganglion cells synapse?

In the lateral geniculate nucleus

26

What is the primary function of P cells?

Color vision and fine detail

27

What is the primary function of koniocellular neurons?

Blue-yellow differentiation

28

Name the 4 layers of the optic nerve.

1.Nerve fiber 2.Prelaminar 3.Laminar 4.Retrolaminar

29

Where does the central retinal artery penetrate the optic nerve?

10-15 mm behind the globe

30

What layer of the optic nerve lies adjacent to the sclera?

Lamina cribrosa

31

Where does focal atrophy of the optic nerve most typically occur in early glaucoma?

Superior and inferior temporal poles

32

What type of peripapillary atrophy is associated with glaucoma?

Beta-zone atrophy

33

What type of refractive error is associated with alpha-zone peripapillary?

Myopia

34

What causes the appearance of beta-zone peripapillary atrophy?

Complete loss of choriocapillaries and RPE