Pediatrics and Strabismus Vol. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pediatrics and Strabismus Vol. 3 Deck (33):
1

What is the primary use of the 40 base-out prism test?

To document the presence of a small, facultative scooma

2

What is the purpose of the afterimage test?

To determine wheter a patient has NRC or ARC

3

What is the most common causa of unilateral vision loss of childhood?

Amblyopia

4

What is the most common causa of amblyopia?

Strabismus

5

What is the second most common cause of amblyopia, following strabismus?

Anisometropia

6

What is the most common cause of deprivation amblyopia?

Congenital or early aquired cataract

7

What is the most important test for detecting the presence of manifest strabismus and differentiating between a phoria and tropia?

Cover-uncover test

8

What is the purpose of the alternate cover test?

To measure the total deviation of strabismus

9

In what type of patient is the Lancaster red-green test most usefuI?

Patients with incomitant stabismus and NRC

10

What type of patient is the Hess screen test most useful?

Patients with paretic or paralytic strabismus and NRC

11

What is the most common cause of pseudostrabismus?

Pseudoesotropia caused by coverage of the nasalsclera by wide, nasalbridge and epicanthalfolds of infancy

12

What is angle kappa?

Angle between the visual axis and the anatomical pupillary axis

13

What causes a positive angle kappa?

Fovea temporal to the pupillary axis

14

What type of deviation is simulated by a positive angle kappa?

Exodeviation

15

What causes a negative angle kappa?

Fovea nasal to the pupillary axis

16

What type of deviation is simulated by a negative angle kappa?

Esodeviation

17

What is an A pattem?

Esotropia greatest in upgaze or exotropia greatest in downgaze

18

What is a V pattern?

Esotropia greatesting in downgaze or exotropia greatest in upgaze

19

What is the normal near point of convergence?

8 to 10 cm or less

20

What is the normal field of binocular fixation?

40 to 50 degrees from the fixation point

21

What is the approximate amount of stereopsis measured by the Stereo Fly Test?

3500 seconds of arc

22

What medication used for cycloplegic refraction has been associated with causing hypnotic effect?

Scopolamine

23

What medication can be used in the treatment of atropine overdose?

Physostigmine

24

What is the most common type of deviation seen in patients with strabismus?

Esotropia

25

What is the normal refractive error in young children?

1- 2 D of hyperopia

26

What is the most common surgical procedure of repair of congenital esotropia?

Bilateral medial rectus recession

27

What is the most commonly used non-surgical treatment option of nonrefractive accomodativa esotropia?

Bifocals

28

What medication has been associated with causing pupillary cysts?

Echothiophata iodide

29

What type of medications should be used with caution in patients taking echothiphate iodide?

Depolarizing muscle relaxants (eg. succinylcholine)

30

What is the mechanism of action of echothiophate iodide?

Long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor

31

What is thought to be the cause of congenital sixth nerve palsy that resolves spontaneously?

Increased intracranial pressure during birth

32

What medication can be used to reduce the risk of pupillary cyst fonnation caused by echothiophate iodide?

Phenylephrine

33

What is the most effective treatment of cyclic esotropia?

Surgery