Flashcards in Glaucoma Vol. 1 Deck (60)
Name the 3 anatomical factors that determine lOP.
1. Rate of aqueous humor production 2. Resistance to aqueous outflow 3. Level of episcleral venous pressure
What is preperimetric glaucoma?
Glaucomatous changes of optic disc in patients without visual field defects
What is the the specific site of aqueous outflow resistance generally considered to cause primary open-angle glaucoma?
What is the most common cause of non-reversible cause of blindness in blacks?
Name 3 anatomical characteristics that may make African-Americans more susceptible to glaucoma.
1. Larger optic discs 2. More nerve fibers 3. Thinner central corneas
What ethnic group has the highest prevelance of PACG?
Inuit populations of the Artic
What gender is at higher risk for PACG?
How does the anterior chamber change with age?
Anterior chambers decreases in depth and volume with age
What is the most common age associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma?
Age 55 to 65
What type of refractive error is at increased risk of PACG?
Hyperopia (due to decreased anterior chamber depth)
What protein produced by trabecular meshwork cells has bean linked to genetic studies of POAG?
Myocilin (TIGR protein)
What gene was the first to be associated with POAG?
What protein is produced by the GLC1A gene?
What type of glaucoma has been associated with GLC1B and GLC1E gene?
On what chromosome is GLC1A gene found?
On what chromosome is GLC1C gene found?
What structure creates the aqueous humor?
What chromosome has been associated with nanopthalmos associated glaucoma?
What specific cells of the ciliary processes are the actual site of aqueous humor production?
Inner, nonpigmented epithelial cells
What type of transport mechanism accounts for the majority of aqeuous humor production?
What is the average production rate of aqueous humor?
2.0 to 2.5 uL/min
What is the most common method used to measure rate of aqueous formation?
What gene is associated with aniridia and glaucoma?
What is the average rate of outflow of aqueous humor?
0.2 to 0.3 uL/min/mmHg
How are aqueous humor production and outflow change with age?
Both are decreased
What artery supplies the ciliary processes?
Major arterial circle of the iris
What is the average turnover rate of aqueous humor?
Approx. 1% per minute
Nama the 3 layers of the trabecular meshwork.
1. Uveal 2. Corneoscleral 3. Juxtacanalicular
Name 3 classes of glaucoma drugs that cause decreased aqueous formation.
1. alpha-2 agonists 2. Beta-blockers 3. Carbonic anhyrdase inhibitors (Think "ABC")