S1: External Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in S1: External Anatomy Deck (108)
1

hypothlamus (diencephalon)

2

thalamus (diencephalon)

3

tegmentum of the midbrain (mesencephalon)

4

5?

base of the pons

5

longitudinal fissure

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central sulcus

7

central sulcus

8

lateral sulcus

9

calcarine sulcus

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Parieto-occiptial Sulcus

11

where do axons from here go? what do they do?

 

what are the effects of damage to this area? 

precentral gyrus

 a major source of axons that extend to the spinal cord for control of voluntary movements

 

 Damage to this area results in weakness (paresis) and movement deficits on the OPPOSITE side of the body. 

12

what does damage to this area cause?

postcentral gyrus

somatic sensory deficits (e.g. loss of touch, limb position) on the opposite side of the body. 

13

what does this region contain?

what are the sx of damage to this region?

superior frontal gyrus

premotor cortex 

 Damage - forms of apraxia.  If the damage is in the dominant hemisphere, the ability to write may be impaired.

14

what action is this region associated with?

what are the sx of X?

superior partietal lobule

 

associated with guiding movement

X - apraxia, inability to bring limb under sensory or cogntiive control (not being able to point to an object when asked even though he is not paralyzed)

parietal lobe dorsal to the intraparietal suclus. [a "lobule" is a smaller group of gyri within a lobe]

15

damage to this area causes?

middle frontal gyrus

premtoor area; forms of apraxia, if in dominant hemisphere the ability to write is impaired

16

what notable regions are found here? what processes is this area involved in in the dominant hemisphere?
what are the sx of damage?
 

inferior parietal lobule

actions: many. in the dominant hemisphere it is involved in language.
notable areas: supramarginal gyrus is a part of wernickes (needed to understand language)
angular gyrus is the gateway for visual info to get to wernickes
damage - inability to read

17

what notable regions are found here? what processes is this area involved in in the dominant hemisphere?

what are the sx of damage?

 

inferior frontal gyrus

regions found here - brocas

in dominant hemisphere, it is needed for programming of speech and writing.

damage -- inability to generate fluent speech

18

corpus callosum

19

hypothalamus

20

what actions is it involved with?

 

superior colliculus

 involved in moving the eyes, head, and axial muscles

21

where does this project to in the thalamus?

inferior colliculus

projects to the MGN. 

22

how to test for palsy of this nerve?

cn 4 - trochlear

Have the patient look nasally. If he cannot then look down from that position, he may have CN IV palsy. He should also have double vision in this nasal position.

23

sx of damage?

facial nerve

LMN CN 7 damage can cause complete paralysis of the face on the affected side

24

olive

25

pyramids

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Cn 9, 10, 11 - glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory

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Cn 8 - vestibular, auditory

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Cn 12 - hypoglossal

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what axons pass through here? in what systems?

gracile  fasciculi

lemniscal system and spinocerebellar systems

dorsal root axons from LOWER TRUNK and ascend the cord 

30

brachium of the inferior colliculus

31

What process is this associated with?

What notable structures does it contain?

superior temporal gyrus

associated with audition

containtains wernickes area

32

what is this associated with?

 

Middle temporal gyrus

associated -- primarily with vision, particularly visual memory

 

33

WHat condition is associated with damage to this region?

inferior temporal gyrus

 

bilateral X to the inferior temporal region can cause prosopagnosia. 

34

occipitotemporal gyrus or fusiform gyrus

associated with vision, particularly with visual memory.

35

what is this area associated with?

what are sx of damage?

uncus

associated with memory; damaged can lead to amnesia

 

"hook-like prominence on medial parahippocampal gyri"

36

#5

Uncus

associated with memory. bilateral damage to this structure can cause amnesia

37

Parahippocampus

associated with memory. bilateral damage to this structure can cause amnesia

38

Green

Parahippocampus

associated with memory. bilateral damage to this structure can cause amnesia

39

PInk

Fusiform gyrus

bilateral lesions of the inferior temporal lobe limited primarily to the fusiform gyri results in prosopagnosia

40

#4

heschl's gyrus - 

primary sensory cortex for audition

unilateral X produces little sx

bilateral X produces the inability to understand spoken language (since info. is cut from wernickes area)

41

Pink

what is thsi a part of?

planum temporale  (yellow is Hesch's g)

makes up part of Wernicke's area in the dominant hemisphere; located in the temporal lobe

42

opening the lateral sulcus.

 

what vessel is this supplied by?

Insula

suppled by MCA

43

wha system is this a part of?

 

what thalamic nulcei sends projections here>

cingulate gyrus

the anterior portion of the cingulate g. is a part of the limbic system

 

anterior nulcei (involved in emotions?)

44

#3

what system is this a part of?

parolfactory gyrus (subcallosal gyrus)

limbic system.

45

what is the limbic lobe composed of?

parahippocampal + cingulate + subcallosal gyrus.

46

septum pellucidum 

ependymal seal covering lateral ventricle lateral ventricle

47

lateral ventricle

48

what two ventricles communicate through this?

interventricular foramen

 

lateral and third ventricle

49

what does this connect?

corpus callosum 

homolgous areas of the two hemispheres

50

anterior commissure

It serves in this way to connect the two temporal lobes, but it also contains decussating fibers from the olfactory tracts, and is a part of the neospinothalamic tract for pain. The anterior commissure also serves to connect the two amygdala.

51

what does this connect?

posterior commissure

connects the two sides of the rostral midbrain?

52

What are sx of a tumor here?

pineal body

1. paralysis of upward eye movements (since pretectal does vertical eye movements)

2. no pupillary light reflex (pretectal blocked)

3. hyodrcephalus if it blocks the cerebral aqueduct

53

thalamus

54

C?

massa intermedia (adhesion between thalami on each side)

55

where does this send projections to?

mamillary bodies

anterior nucelus in the thalamus, which then ---> cingulate gyrus

56

third ventricle  the area covering thalamus and hypothalamus

57

fornix

58

What does a X of this cause?

What structures is this near?

optic chiasm

near the infundibulum and hypothalamus

X optic chiasm --> a loss of vision in the temporal half of both visual fields: bitemporal hemianopsia

59

What does a unilateral X in the optic tract this cause?

optic tract

A lesion of the right optic tract causes a complete loss of vision in the left hemifield:
contralateral “homonymous” hemianopsia. 
contralateral “homonymous” hemianopsia

60

what does a X of this cause?

optic nerve

loss of vision in the same eye

loss of pupillary reflex in the same eye

61

infundibulum of the pituitary gland

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interpeduncular fossa

63

A

anterior perforated substance

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olfactory bulb

65

olfactory tract

66

A? what is it composed of?

cerebral peduncle

crus cerbri and the tegmentum

67

what is the ventricle associated with the PONS?

4th

68

base of pons

69

____ in the pons is in the floor of the 4th ventricle

 

what does this contain?

the facial colliculus

 

the abducens nucleus and axons of the facial nerve that pass over it

70

what are some sx of damage to this region

cerebellar vermis

potentially 1. disturbances in balance

2. nystagmus

71

what are some sx of damage to this region

cerebellar hemispheres

1. intention tremor

2. ddk

3. generally, impaired limb movement

72

what are some sx of damage to thsi region

cerebellar flocculus

pornetially 1. disturbances in balance

2. nystagmus

73

7?

 

what does this connect?

inferior cerebellar peduncle connects the medulla to the cerebellum

74

5?

middle cerebellar peduncle- connects the pons to the cerebellum

75

4?

what does this connect?

superior cerebellar peduncle

connects the cerebellum to the midbrain and thalamus tonsils

76

4' 

Vestibular area in the medulla

77

Orange and Yellow lines

trigones (vagal and hypoglossal)

78

11 and 12

11. Cuneate tubercle
12. Gracile tubercle

79

C

inferior cerebellar peduncle

80

thalamus

81

splenium of the corpus callosum

82

vermis of the cerebellum

83

ACA

84

mamillary body

85

posterior commisure

86

infundibulum

87

head of caudate

88

fornix

89

superior colliculus

90

inferior cerebellar peduncle

91

middle cerebellar peduncle

92

caudate nulceus

93

interthalamic adhesion

94

uncus

95

anterior tubercle of the thalamus

 principal anterior and anterodorsal

96

vermis

97

mgn

98

cerebellar hemisphere

99

vermis

100

vestibular area

101

vagal and hypoglossal trigones

102

superior cerebellar peduncle

103

cerebellar hemispheres

104

trigeminal n.

105

flocculus

106

trochlear

107

inferior cerebellar peduncle

108

middle cerebellar peduncle