Section 2: Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 2: Notes Deck (60)
1

the lateral ventricle covers the ___ and ___

hypothalamus and thalamus

2

cognitive deficits signal what part of the brain?

forebrain

3

what is the striatum?

caudate, putamen

4

what is the basal gang.?

caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamus

5

what part of the brain is the basal gang. located in?

forebrain (gp, caudate, putamen are)

6

what structures are in the limbic system?

amygdala, anterior part of cingulate gyrus, orbital and medial prefrontal gyri, ventral parts of basal gang., hippocampus, parts of thalamus

7

what causes the cavity in the ventral lateral surface of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle

head of the caudate

8

a hollow on the ventral medial surface of the inferior horn is produced by the____.

hippocampus.

9

the hole piercing the third ventricle made by the ____

massa intermedia

10

the "beak" of the third ventricle is surrounded by the ____

hypothalamus

11

he medial surface of the posterior horn normally abuts the ____.

calcarine sulcus

12

the _____ lies above the fourth ventricle

cerebellum

13

what forms the floor of the 4th ventricle?

the contiunation of the tegmentum into the pons

14

what does the blood brain barrier protect the brain from?

- sever flucations in ionic concentrantions - toxic compounds - circulating hormones and NT released in other parts of the body

15

The actual locus of the BBB is the capillary endothelium which is specialized by having what three things?

1) tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells 2) few endocytotic vesicles for intracellular transport 3) a high number of mitochondria indicative of high levels of oxidative metabolism.

16

what 3 methods is entry into the brain achieved?

1. diffusion (lipid solube) 2. facilitative and energy depend. transport (water sol. like glucose and a.a.) 3. ion channels

17

how do molecules get to the blood from the brain

a reverse pump in astroglia transpots lipophilic molecules back out

18

how do some whole moelcules get into the blood brain barrier (like ymphocytes and macrophages)

a mechanism that opens tight junctions (implicated in disease with MS lymphocytes and HIV infected macrophages)

19

what are 3 examples in which the blood brain barrier breaks down

brain tumor, bacterial invasion, ischemia

20

ischemic directly damages cells ____ pumps

NA and K

21

what are some of the causes of edema with stroke?

ischemia alters na and k channels ionic influx causes cells to swell

22

csf is in equilibrium with

brain extracellular fluid

23

what is the total volume of csf? how much is made per day?

140 ml is total volume, 500 ml made per day so a lot of turn over (3-4x)

24

what secretes csf?

choroid plexus

25

choroid plexus consists of a specialized capillary network surrounded by a___ or ___ epithelium

cuboidal or columnar

26

what accounts for the continuous production of CSF and active transport of metabolites?

epithelial cells form a barrier that is responsible for carrier-mediated active transport that is bi-directional.

27

what is lower in blood plasma compared to CSF?

conentrations of K, Ca, bicarbonate, glucose, and protein

28

CSF is more ____ than blood plasma

acidic

29

what is the normal color of CSF?

clear; no rbcs and veyr few wbcs

30

where does most of the csf go after flowing through the 4th ventricle

exits via foramen magendie or formaina lusckha, not the spinal cord

31

CSF continues to flow over the whole brain and spinal cord beneath the arachnoid mater in the ___

subarachnoid space

32

CSF flows slowly over the convexities of the cerebral hemispheres until it reaches the___in the walls of the dural sinuses,

arachnoid villi

33

2 common spots for flow of csf to be obstructed are the

interventricular foramen or at the cereberal aqueduct

34

obstructiing hydrocephalus is also called ___

non communicating hydrocephalus

35

what is cause of communicating hydrocephalus

the arachnoid villi are diseased and absorption fails

36

with increase intercranil pressure ____ LOBE FUNCTION is often compromised

FRONTAL

37

papilledema is caused by swelling of the ___

optic nerve

38

what can cause increased protein content in csf?

changes in vascualr permeability or csf dynamics

39

assocaition fibers connect

different areas of cortex in the same hemisphere;

40

projection fibers connect

connect areas of cortex to lower areas of the neuraxis

41

where does the superior longitudinal fasiculus extent to?

from the frontal lobe to the temporal lobe to the occipial lobe

42

uncinate fasciculus runs deep to the

limen insulae

43

uncinate fasciculus interconnects orbital frontal cortex-based reward and punishment centers with

temporal lobe based memory representations

44

what does the cingulum connect?

structures of the limbic system

45

what deep white matter tract may be involved in the process to avoid painful stimuli

cingulum

46

The frontal lobes are connected through the

genu of the corpus callosum

47

parietal lobes are connected through the

body of the corpus callosum

48

occipital lobes (notably visual cortex) are connected via the ____

splenium of the corpus callosum

49

the ___ connects the anterior poles of the two temporal lobes

anterior commisure

50

the ___ connects the two fornices, connecting the two hippocampi

hippocampal comissure

51

the posterior commisure connects the two

sides of the rostral midbrain

52

what are the corona radiata

Projection fibers interconnect the cortex with nuclei at lower levels of the neuraxis.

53

As the axons of the corona radiata pass medial to the lenticulate nucleus they are called the

internal capsule.

54

Axons whose targets are in the ___ and ___ descend onto the anterior aspect of the midbrain as the crus cerebri.

rainstem and spinal cord

55

Then look at the roof of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle and see the crossing fibers of the ___

corpus callosum.

56

what are the fibers going from the internal capsule to the temporal lobe called/

auditroy radiation

57

the INTERNAL CAPSULE is the neck of the funnel in which massive cables of axons (corona radiata) carry information from thalamus to cortex and from cortex to

thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem and spinal cord.

58

anterior limb of the internal capsule carries informaiton to and from the

frontal lobes

59

what is the lenticular nucleus?

putamen and the globus pallidus

60

what does the crus cerebri carry?

motor functions going from the cortex to the brain stem and spinal cord