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Flashcards in Section 3 Notes Deck (76)
1

Type of information carried by the Dorsal Column/Medial Lemniscal System?

epicritic somatosensory information (touch, pressure, joint position sense, vibration sense)

2

Gracile fasciulus carries information from the ____

middle thoracic and lower limbs (epicritic in DML and proprioceptive in D. Spinocerebellar)

3

The cuneate fascilus is not present below the ____ spinal cord

mid throacic

4

____funciulus carries dorsal or posteriro column axons

dorsal

5

Type of info carried by the anterolateral system?

PROTOPATHIC - opposite side: pain and temp, touch, pressre

6

Anterolateral System carries information from the ____ side of the body

opposite

7

the ANTEROLATERAL system is made up of ___ ____ and ____ axons

spinoreticular, spinotectal, and spinothalamic

8

What system carries touch and pressure ipsilaterally?

dorsal column system

9

What system carries touch and pressure contralaterally?

anterolateral cell column (this is less discrete than dorsal column system)

10

dissociated sensory loss is a symptom of dmaage to the ____

spinal cord pain and temp is on one side, fien touch, vibration, and joint position on another

11

the ____ system regulates movement and does not normally contribute to our conscious perception of limb position

spinocerebellar

12

the Spinocerebellar system carries ____ information

proprioceptive from muscles and joints (to coordinate muscle activity during movement)

13

The dorsal spinocerebellar tract icarries proprioceptive information from the ____

lower half of the body

14

proprioceptive info. from lower limbs acends in the ____ before synapsing in Clarkes n.

gracile fascilus

15

____ synapses in Clarke's nucleus

proprioceptive info. from lower half of the body

16

the dorsal spinocerebellar tract carries proprioceptive info on the ____ side of the body

same

17

dorsal spinocerbellar tracts terminates in the ____

inferior cerebellar peduncle

18

cuneocerebellar tract terminates in the _____

inferior cerebellar peduncle

19

what is carried by the cuneate fasciulus?

 

from the lower half of the body:

1. epicritic (DML)

2. proprioceptive (dorsal spinocerebellar)

20

from the cuneate fascilus, synapse in the ___ nucleus

accessory cuneate

21

ventral spinocerebellar tract arises from neurons in the____

intermediate gray

22

the ____ spinocerebellar tract crosses in the anterior white commissure

ventral, *BUT THEY RECROSS

23

the ventral spinocerebellar tract terminates in the

superior cerebellar peduncle

24

the spino olivary axons carry ___ information

proprioceptive

25

the spinoolivary axons terminate in the

inferior olivary n.

26

the pyramidal tract arises from the

cerebral cortex

27

the pyramidal tract splits at the ____

caudal most medulla

28

Corticospinal axons originating from neurons in the motor cortex terminate particularly in the more _____ portions of the intermediate gray,

lateral

29

The axons of the pyramidal tract that cross cross at the ____

pyramidal decussation (they then form the lateral corticospinal tract)

30

Corticospinal axons from sensory cortex terminate in the ______ and modulate sensory input.

dorsal horn

31

Pyramidal tract that does not cross

anterior corticospinal tract

32

the lateral corticospinal tract concerned particularly with____ and ____

discrete individual digit movements and distal motor control.

33

The ventral corticospinal tract is more concerned with ___ and ____

axial and proximal muscular movement

34

brainstem spinal tracts involved in distal muscle control

rubrospinal

35

The pathways involved in proximal motor control run more medially or ventrally in the spinal cord ?

medially

36

origin of rubrospinal

red nucelus

37

origin of vestibulospinal

vestibular n.

38

origin of reticulospinal

retiuclar formation

39

from the ___ system enters the spinal cord as large diameter dorsal root axons

dorsal coilumn/medial lemniscus

40

Direct Descending tracts (have direct contact to cortex)

Corticospinal Tract (Spinal cord motor neurons) Corticobulbar Tract (Brainstem cranial nerve nuclei) Corticopontine Tract (Cerebellum) Cortico-rubro-olivary Tract (Cerebellum)

41

Indirect Descending tracts (extrapyramidal)

Tectospinal Tract Reticulospinal Tract Vestibulospinal Tract Rubrospinal Tract

42

UMN signs

Hyperreflexia Hypertonia Positive Babinski

43

LMN signs

Hyporeflexia Hypotonia Negative Babinski Muscle Atrophy Fasciculations

44

acensding tract that brings proprioceptive ifno from turnk and limbs

spinocerebellar

45

cuneate fasciulus

carries epicritc from DML and dorsal spinocerebellar

46

The motor cortex projects to the ___ pathways

1. direct pyramidal 2. indirect -- brainstem pathways (also projects to the basal ganglia)

47

how does the basal ganglia controls both the direct and indirect pathways?

via projections of the GP to the VA and VL in the thalamus and then back to the mtoor and premotor cortex

48

if lesion of the spunal cord, which side is it on?

same side unless pain and temp loss

49

brainstem X, it will be on the same side as the ___ sx

most rostral since the most rostal sx will cause damage to the cranial nerve nucleus

50

brainstem X, it will be on the opposite side as the ___ sx

descending sx

51

if forebrain X the sx will be

opposite the lesion

52

if cerebellum X the pathology will be on the ___ side

same

53

in what state is msucles noramlly?

they are never totally relaxed (this is normal tone)

54

muscle tone is maintained by what factors

1.sensry neuons form msucle spindle 2. corticospinal and inidrect pathways (maintain baseline excitcity)

55

When the resting contraction of the muscle is less than normal, the tone is called ____

“hypotonic”

56

axons from the ___ of each retina cross

nasal (temporal visual field)

57

the optic tract wraps around the

thalamus and the crus cerebri

58

pathways of optic tracts

1. to lgn in thalamus

 

2. in the brahcium of the superior colliclus to terminate on the pretectal area

 

3. superior colliculus

 

59

Axons carrying information about the upper half of the visual field pass ____ and terminate in the ____

pass deep to the cortex of the temporal lobe and terminate in the calcarine sulcus

60

carrying information about the lower half of the visual field pass deep to the ____ lobe 

parietal

61

axons carrying information about the lower half of the visual  terminate in the cortex forming the 

superior bank of the calcarine sulcus or the cuneaus gyrus

62

the _____ this pathway governs long-term reactions to light, e.g., resetting daily biological rhythms, detecting seasonal changes in light. 

Hypothalamus

63

 the pretectal nuclei are interconnected via the____

 posterior commissure 

64

he pretectal nucleus functions like  a ____

light meter 

It receives bilateral input from the two eyes and it contains cells that calculate the total light energy entering the eye. 

65

Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the ___ component of IIII nucleus

parasympathetic

66

function of pregnaglionic EQ axons

project with CN IIII to contrisct pupil

67

CN 8 terminates in ____

the dorsal and ventral cochlear n.

68

the dorsal and ventral cochlear n. lie in the

inferior cerebellar peducnle

69

second order neurons arise in the cochlear nuclei, and project to several nuclei,

and to both sides of the brain crossing mainly in the

trapezoid body in the caudal PONS

70

projections of cochlear nulcie are

1. superior olive

2. other nuclei like nuclei of trapezoid body, nucleus of lateral lameniscus etc

71

 Much of the lateral lemniscus terminates in the

 inferior colliculus. 

72

No matter what ncueli the cochlear n. project to, all ifnromation ends up in the

lateral leniscus

73

The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the ___

MGN by the inferior bracium of the inferior colliculus

74

MGN projects auditory ifnromation to

heschls gyrus

75

earliest level of bilateral miing of information from the two years

second order neurons (after the cochlear ncueli)

76

the left Heschl’s gyrus receives projections from the right Heschl’s gyrus through the 

corpus callosum