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Flashcards in Section 6 Notes Deck (63)
1

axons from the base of the pons go to the cerebellum via the

middle cerebellar peduncle

2

cranial nerves evident on the surface of the basis of the pons are

5, 6, 7, 8

3

CN ___ pierces the middle cerebellar peduncle

trigeminal 

4

what does the superior cerebellar peduncle carry?

axons from the cerebellum to the

1. brainstem

2. forebrain

5

landmarks on the dorsal surface of the pons (floor of the 4th ventricle)

1. vestibular areas

2. facial colliculus (abduscens is below as well as the facial nucl;eus)

6

landmarks of the transition to the medulla to the pons

1. pryamids disasppear

2. striated appearence of the basis of the pons (pyramidal tract still embedded here)

 

dorsally 

1. vestibular nuclei

2. blending of the inferior cerebellar peduncle with white matter of the cerebelum

7

the corticospinal axons form part of the ___ in the midbrain

crus cerebri

8

what does the middle cerebellar receiveinput from

primarily the pontine nuclei, which receive input from the cerebral cortex

9

the axons of the superior cerebellar peduncle arise from the

deep cerebellar nuceli

10

_____ comprises much of the gore gray matter of the tegmentum

pontine reticular formation

11

pontine reticular formation controls functions like

eye movements, sleep, arousal

12

desribe the relationship to the absudcens and facial nuceli in the pons. 

facial ncuelsu is more rostral and lateral but loops caudally around the abduscens forming the genu of the facial nerve (causes the bump or the facial colliculus)

13

function of the reticular formaiton in the pons near trigeminal motor n. 

invovled with chewing responses

14

function of the reticular formaiton in the pons near facial nucleus

invovled with lip movements and facial expression

15

function of the reticular formaiton in the pons near abduscens nculei

invovled in coordinating eye movement

16

The raphe nuclei of the pons (serotonergic) project rostrally throughout the forebrain and modulate responses of___ and ___

 hypothalamic and cerebral neurons. 

17

noradrenergic neurons within the pons send projections to the spinal cord and are involved in___ and ___

 autonomic reflexes and pain sensation.

18

where is the locus cereuleus located?

rostral pons and caudal midbrain

19

___ contains melanin granules

locus cerulues

20

what is the importance of locus ceruleus?

produce norepeinphrine

important for vigilance

important for responsive ness to unexpected stimuli in the environment

21

projections from the locus ceruelus

to:

1. spinal cord

2. cerebral cortex

3. cerebelar cortex

22

Approximately half of the second order neurons of cochlear nuclei

send axons across the midline, through the region containing the ____

medial lemniscus

23

what is the trapezoidal body?

contains crossing auditory axons and the medial lemniscus

24

auditory axons from the cochlear nuclei, no matter if they cross or not, synapse in the

supeiror olive and other auditory nuclei

25

what does each lateral lemniscus carry?

auditory signals from both ears

26

function of motor nucleus of cn 5?

 

what does X cause?

control the muscles of the jaw

 

X causes atrophy of ipsilateral jaw muscles. jaw deviates to the same side of the lesion

27

Principa Sensory Nucleus of CN 5 function

processes epicritc from the face

(unlike the spinal trigem in medulla which gets pain and temp)

28

input of the mtoor nculeus of 5

mesencephalic tract of CN 5 carries proprioceptive info from the mesenepahlic nulceus of 5 in the pons

29

e mesenepahlic nulceus of 5 sends information to the cerebellum via the

reticular formation

30

medial lemniscus tract terminates in the

vpl

31

ALS terminates in the

1. some in the reticular formaiton

2. some in the periaqueductal gray

3. vpl and intralaminar nuclei and others

32

pyramidal tract leaves the cortex via the

posterior limb of the internal capsule

33

where do corticobulbar axons cross?

cross right at their target nuclei (not at the decussations)

34

sx of MLF X

a horizontal nystagmus or a loss of conjugate horizontal eye movements 

35

paramedian pontine reticular formation is located in the

reticular formaiton of the pons

36

paramedian pontine reticular formation is involved in

conjugate horizontal eye movements

37

3 output of the vestibular nuclei

1. CN that move eyes: 3,4,6

2. spinal cord -- vestibulospinal tracts (maintain posture)

3. cerebellum -- via the inferior cerebellar peduncle

 

38

ROmberg's sign

what is it 

what causes it

loss of balance more proncounced when patients eyes are closed

seen with vestibular nuclei damage in the pons

39

what is innervated by the facial nucleus in the pons 

the facial muscles, the stapedius, auricularis, and stylohyoid muscles and the posterior belly of the digastric.

40

X facial nucelus in the pons

1. paralysis of ipsilateral facial muscles

2. drying of cornea due to loss of parasymps of lacrimal 

3. loss of corneal reflex

4. painful sensitivity to sound due to weakness of stapedius

41

 lesions to corticobulbar axons projecting to the facial nucleus

contralateral facial paralysis below the forehead

42

describe the spinal nucleus and tract in the medulla vs pons

in the medulla: pain and temp from face on same side

pons: carry epicritic from the face

43

function of the princeipal nucleus of cn 5

epicritic of head and neck

44

epicritc sensation from head and neck

pathway from the CN 5 entering the pons

synapses in the principal sensory nucelus of cn 5

travels cross midline

trigeminothalamic axons travel to medial lemniscus

termiantes in the VPM

45

 principal sensory nucelus of cn 5

X symptoms

loss of vibration, position sense, and reduced sens eof touch on the ispialteral side of face

46

X of motor ncuelus fo CN 5

- jaw juts sideways when protruded

- paraylsis of ipsilateral muscles of masticaiton

47

inferioer cerebellum carries info from the

spinal cord and medulla 

48

pontine neurons relay information to the ____ middle cerebellar peduncle

contralaterla

49

____ is the main outflow of the cerebellum

superior cerebellar peduncle

50

axons from the superior cerbellar peduncle arise from the ___

deep cerebelllar ncueli

51

axons from the superior cerbellar peduncle arise (from the deep cerebellar nuclei) then go to the

tegmentum of the pons

 

then most ross in the decussation of the superior peducnles

52

targets of the axons from the superior cerbellar peduncle

 

after crossing in the decussation of the superio cerbellar peduncel?

1. reticular formation

2. red nculeus (midbrain)

3. ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei

53

input of the deep crebellar nuclei

mostly form the cortex

54

output of the deep cerebellar ncueli

brainstem

55

medial deep crebellar ncueli

fastigial and globose

56

lateral deep cerebellar ncueli

emboliform and dentate

57

____ deep cerebellar receive a bulk of connectiosn from AXIAL RELATED STRUCTURES

medial (fastigial and globose)

58

____ deep cerebellar receive a bulk of connectiosn from APPENDICULAR RELATED CONTROL

EMBOLLIFORM AND DENTATE

59

midline parts of the cerebellum include the

vermis and flocculus

60

lateral pathology of the cerebeluum is located in the

hesmipheres

61

The cerebellum has no direct connections to cranial nerve nuclei or the spinal cord. 

 

the right cerebellar projections are to the vestibular nuclei which affect the ____ side of the body

right

 

 cerebellar information about the right side of the body is sent to the left red nucleus and left VA and VL nuclei in the thalamus. The left red nucleus is the origin of the rubrospinal tract, which crosses 

62

what nuclei are in the pons

cranial nerves --

1. abduscnes

2. facial nuclei

3. motor part of trigem

4. principal sensory of trigem

5. vestibular nulcei.

6. spinal nucleus of trigem (carry epicritc)

 

other --

6. pontine reticular formation nuclei

7. superior olivary n. 

63

what major tracts run through the pons?

1. medial lemniscus - carry epicritic from opposite side of the body (crosses in medulla)

2. ALS

3. pyramidal tracts

4. corticobulbar and cortciopontine tracts - to ponhtine nuclei or other nuclei

5. MLF