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Flashcards in Section 5 Notes Deck (57)
1

Projectiosn of the vestibular nucleoi/area in the medulla

1.  to other nuclei for vestibular reflexes (e.g. medial longitudinal fasciculus for vestibular-ocular and tonic neck reflexes, vestibulospinal tracts for posture and support),

2. to and from the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle 

2

projectiosn of the salvitaory nuceli in the medulla

1. otic ganglion (partoid via 9)

2. submandibualr ganglion (sublingual and submaxillary via 7)

3. pteryogoaplatine ganglion (lacrimal and mucuous glands of nose and mouth via 7)

3

deficit in lacrimation and salvation could mean ____

X salvitaory nuclei in the medulla

4

 dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei on the external surface of the _____ cerebellar peduncle

inferior

5

CN input to  dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei 

auditory from CN 8

6

damage to dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei

ipsilateral deafness of ipsilateral ear

7

cranial nerves leaving the medulla

CN 12 - CN 8

8

injury to CN leaving medulla will cause sx on the ____ side

same

9

Nuclei in the medulla

1. hypoglossal nuclei

2. dorsal motor nucleus of vagus

3. vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei

4. spinal nucleus of trigem

 

5. inferior salvitory

7. nucleus ambiguous

 

relay nuclei -

8.gracilies

9. cuneatus

10. olivary nucleus

 

10

Two structures seen throughout the brainstem are the ___ and the ___

medial longitudinal fasciculus (mlf) and the reticular formation.

11

 axons of the medial longitudinal fasciculus interconnect the___,___, ___, and ____

 superior colliculus, vestibular nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei 3, 4, and 6, and the cervical spinal cord. 

12

____ is the general name given to the core of the brainstem.

reticular formation

13

spinal trigem nucelus gets input from

trigem, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus

 

 

14

groups of neurons within the reticular formation near the cranial nerve nuclei have what function?

coordinate reflexes and simple stereotyped responses

 

e.g.  neurons of the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation coordinate functions controlled by the vagus nerve like swallowing, vomitting, initiation and modulation of respiratory rhythm, coughing, hiccuping, sneezing, and cardiovascular responses.

15

areas of the reticular formation that modulate neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord are located ____

medullay

16

noradrenergic neurons in the medulla continuous with the solitary nucleus and dorsal nucleus of the vagus and do what? 

send ascending projections to the hypothalamus and are involved in cardiovascular and endocrine function

17

where are raphe nuclei found?

along the midline of the entire brainstem

18

Serotonergic neurons in the raphe of the rostral medulla receive projections from the

ALS

19

Serotonergic neurons in the raphe of the rostral medulla send descending serotonergic projections to the spinal cord that____

 inhibit pain perception.

20

 medullary raphe nuclei send descending axons that modulate proximal movement and posture as the ____

reticulospinal tract

21

where is the spinal trigem found?

in the medulla and pons

22

 CAUDAL portion of the spinal trigem nucleus in the medulla is related to

 pain, temperature and touch from the head

23

 CAUDAL portion of the spinal trigem nucleus in the medulla is related to pain, temp, touch from the head via the

trigem nerve

and from the external autidotry meatus via 7, 9, and 10

24

course of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve?

 

pain, temp, touch, enters caudal medulla -->


travels as the spinal tract of trigem -->

synapse in spinal trigem nucleus --> crosses -->

terminates in the reticular formation --> other targets like the thalamus

terminates in the reticular formation --> other targets like the thalamus

25

X of spinal trigeminal tract or nucleus results in loss of ____

pain, touch, temp from the head on the same side

26

what makes up the spinal portion of the accessory cranial nerve?

1. axons from the acessory nucleus in the medulla and 2. axons from upper cervical segments in the spinal cord

 

27

Damage to the VENTRAL medulla rostral to the pyramidal decussation will result in motor loss on the _____ side of the body.

opposite

28

Corticobulbar axons from neocortex terminate on ____

cranieal nerve axons in the medulla

29

The bulk of cortibobulbar axons control cranial nerve nuclei on the____ the origin of these axons in the cortex

opposite side *except for the hypoglossal nerve

30

damage to the corticobulbar tracts will have ____ effects on cranial nerves

contralateral * except for hypoglossal

31

As dorsal column axons of the gracile/cuneate fasciculus terminate in the gracile/cuneate nucleus ---> 

 the nucleus fills this dorsomedial region.

32

neck to foot somatosensory information is mapped from ____  within the medial lemniscus

dorsal to ventral

33

Damage to the medial lemniscus results in epicritic deficits on the ____ side of the body

opposite

34

when does somatosensory ifnormation from the face (trigeminothlaamic axons) join the medial lemniscus?

not until the pons

35

what do you also see with damage to the ALS tract in the medulla? (as with PICA infarct)

1. loss of pain and temp from same side of the bead because spinal tract and nucleus of trigem are near here

 

2. cerebellar sx - inferior cerebellar peduncle is nearby

3. vestibular sx -- vestibular area near by

36

with PICA stroke, on what side do you see pain and temp loss?

same side of face -- X spinal trigem nulceus/tract

opposite side of body -- X ALS

37

input to the inferior cerebellar peduncle

1. inferior olivary nucleus

2. spinal cord (dorsal spunocerebellar tract and cuneo cerebellar tract carrying proprioceptive info.)

3. cortex

38

accessory cuneate nucleus in the medulla input

 receives cuneate fasciculus axons carrying proprioceptive information from the upper half of the body

39

information to and from the ___ nuclei runs with the inferior cerebellum peduncle

vestibular

40

Damage to the inferior cerebellar peduncle results in -->

1. ataxia

2. intention tremor on same side of the body

3. clumsiness and tremor using ipsilateral hand

41

when the hypoglossal nerve or nucleus is damaged unilaterally, the tongue protrudes to 

the side of the damage.

42

if axons from cortex controlling the hypoglossal nuceli is damaged, the tongue protrudes to the

opposite side

since control of hypoglossal nuceli from the cortex is contralateral

43

axons from the nucleus ambiguous project to the

larynx and pharynx (via 10 and 9)

44

cranial nerves associated with  nucleus ambiguous 

vagus and glossopharyngeal

 

45

unilateral X to nucleus ambiguous 

result in hoarseness, impaired swallowing, and asymmetry of the soft palate

46

bilateral X to nucleus ambiguous

prevent closure of the trachea and result in choking and aspiration of fluid in the lungs

47

axons coming from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (CN 10 or X) are the

pregang parasymps to the vagus

48

axons coming from the dorsal motor ncuelus of vagus terminate on the ganglia related to 

 smooth muscle of blood vessels, trachea, bronchi, esophagus, stomach and intestines 

49

solitary n. receives affected information from the 

from the pharynx and larynx and from the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems

via 7,9,10

50

rostral pole of the solitary nucleus receives___ ifnormation

 taste information from the tongue via 7,9, 10

51

solitary nucleus projects to many regiosn of the brainstem like 

 nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor of vagus, and hypoglossal nucleus. 

52

solitary nucleus projections to the  nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor of vagus, and hypoglossal nucleus. mediates 

 1. reflex responses (vomiting, coughing, sneezing)

 

2. as well as sending projections to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and thalamus.

53

salivatory nuclei  send axons to the

1. otic ganglion -- partoid

2. submandibular ganglion -- sublingual and submaxillary

3. lacrimal gland and mucous of oral and nasal cavities

54

damage to dorsal and ventral cohclear nuclei

deafness in ipsilateral ear

55

 Damage to the vestibular nuclei or nerve results in 

nystagmus, vertigo, and problems with balance.

56

Cranial nerve 9 sx

 loss of the gag reflex on the side of the oropharynx of the nerve injury 

57

Cranial nerve 12 sx 

paralysis of the ipsilateral tongue muscles, deviation towards the side of the weakness upon protrusion, atrophy, and fasciculations of tongue muscles ipsilaterally.