Projectiosn of the vestibular nucleoi/area in the medulla
1. to other nuclei for vestibular reflexes (e.g. medial longitudinal fasciculus for vestibular-ocular and tonic neck reflexes, vestibulospinal tracts for posture and support),
2. to and from the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle
projectiosn of the salvitaory nuceli in the medulla
1. otic ganglion (partoid via 9)
2. submandibualr ganglion (sublingual and submaxillary via 7)
3. pteryogoaplatine ganglion (lacrimal and mucuous glands of nose and mouth via 7)
deficit in lacrimation and salvation could mean ____
X salvitaory nuclei in the medulla
dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei on the external surface of the _____ cerebellar peduncle
CN input to dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei
auditory from CN 8
damage to dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei
ipsilateral deafness of ipsilateral ear
cranial nerves leaving the medulla
CN 12 - CN 8
injury to CN leaving medulla will cause sx on the ____ side
Nuclei in the medulla
1. hypoglossal nuclei
2. dorsal motor nucleus of vagus
3. vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei
4. spinal nucleus of trigem
5. inferior salvitory
7. nucleus ambiguous
relay nuclei -
10. olivary nucleus
Two structures seen throughout the brainstem are the ___ and the ___
medial longitudinal fasciculus (mlf) and the reticular formation.
axons of the medial longitudinal fasciculus interconnect the___,___, ___, and ____
superior colliculus, vestibular nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei 3, 4, and 6, and the cervical spinal cord.
____ is the general name given to the core of the brainstem.
spinal trigem nucelus gets input from
trigem, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus
groups of neurons within the reticular formation near the cranial nerve nuclei have what function?
coordinate reflexes and simple stereotyped responses
e.g. neurons of the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation coordinate functions controlled by the vagus nerve like swallowing, vomitting, initiation and modulation of respiratory rhythm, coughing, hiccuping, sneezing, and cardiovascular responses.
areas of the reticular formation that modulate neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord are located ____
noradrenergic neurons in the medulla continuous with the solitary nucleus and dorsal nucleus of the vagus and do what?
send ascending projections to the hypothalamus and are involved in cardiovascular and endocrine function
where are raphe nuclei found?
along the midline of the entire brainstem
Serotonergic neurons in the raphe of the rostral medulla receive projections from the
Serotonergic neurons in the raphe of the rostral medulla send descending serotonergic projections to the spinal cord that____
inhibit pain perception.
medullary raphe nuclei send descending axons that modulate proximal movement and posture as the ____
where is the spinal trigem found?
in the medulla and pons
CAUDAL portion of the spinal trigem nucleus in the medulla is related to
pain, temperature and touch from the head
CAUDAL portion of the spinal trigem nucleus in the medulla is related to pain, temp, touch from the head via the
and from the external autidotry meatus via 7, 9, and 10
course of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve?
pain, temp, touch, enters caudal medulla -->
travels as the spinal tract of trigem -->
synapse in spinal trigem nucleus --> crosses -->
terminates in the reticular formation --> other targets like the thalamus
terminates in the reticular formation --> other targets like the thalamus
X of spinal trigeminal tract or nucleus results in loss of ____
pain, touch, temp from the head on the same side
what makes up the spinal portion of the accessory cranial nerve?
1. axons from the acessory nucleus in the medulla and 2. axons from upper cervical segments in the spinal cord
Damage to the VENTRAL medulla rostral to the pyramidal decussation will result in motor loss on the _____ side of the body.
Corticobulbar axons from neocortex terminate on ____
cranieal nerve axons in the medulla
The bulk of cortibobulbar axons control cranial nerve nuclei on the____ the origin of these axons in the cortex
opposite side *except for the hypoglossal nerve
damage to the corticobulbar tracts will have ____ effects on cranial nerves
contralateral * except for hypoglossal
As dorsal column axons of the gracile/cuneate fasciculus terminate in the gracile/cuneate nucleus --->
the nucleus fills this dorsomedial region.
neck to foot somatosensory information is mapped from ____ within the medial lemniscus
dorsal to ventral
Damage to the medial lemniscus results in epicritic deficits on the ____ side of the body
when does somatosensory ifnormation from the face (trigeminothlaamic axons) join the medial lemniscus?
not until the pons
what do you also see with damage to the ALS tract in the medulla? (as with PICA infarct)
1. loss of pain and temp from same side of the bead because spinal tract and nucleus of trigem are near here
2. cerebellar sx - inferior cerebellar peduncle is nearby
3. vestibular sx -- vestibular area near by
with PICA stroke, on what side do you see pain and temp loss?
same side of face -- X spinal trigem nulceus/tract
opposite side of body -- X ALS
input to the inferior cerebellar peduncle
1. inferior olivary nucleus
2. spinal cord (dorsal spunocerebellar tract and cuneo cerebellar tract carrying proprioceptive info.)
accessory cuneate nucleus in the medulla input
receives cuneate fasciculus axons carrying proprioceptive information from the upper half of the body
information to and from the ___ nuclei runs with the inferior cerebellum peduncle
Damage to the inferior cerebellar peduncle results in -->
2. intention tremor on same side of the body
3. clumsiness and tremor using ipsilateral hand
when the hypoglossal nerve or nucleus is damaged unilaterally, the tongue protrudes to
the side of the damage.
if axons from cortex controlling the hypoglossal nuceli is damaged, the tongue protrudes to the
since control of hypoglossal nuceli from the cortex is contralateral
axons from the nucleus ambiguous project to the
larynx and pharynx (via 10 and 9)
cranial nerves associated with nucleus ambiguous
vagus and glossopharyngeal
unilateral X to nucleus ambiguous
result in hoarseness, impaired swallowing, and asymmetry of the soft palate
bilateral X to nucleus ambiguous
prevent closure of the trachea and result in choking and aspiration of fluid in the lungs
axons coming from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (CN 10 or X) are the
pregang parasymps to the vagus
axons coming from the dorsal motor ncuelus of vagus terminate on the ganglia related to
smooth muscle of blood vessels, trachea, bronchi, esophagus, stomach and intestines
solitary n. receives affected information from the
from the pharynx and larynx and from the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems
rostral pole of the solitary nucleus receives___ ifnormation
taste information from the tongue via 7,9, 10
solitary nucleus projects to many regiosn of the brainstem like
nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor of vagus, and hypoglossal nucleus.
solitary nucleus projections to the nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor of vagus, and hypoglossal nucleus. mediates
1. reflex responses (vomiting, coughing, sneezing)
2. as well as sending projections to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and thalamus.
salivatory nuclei send axons to the
1. otic ganglion -- partoid
2. submandibular ganglion -- sublingual and submaxillary
3. lacrimal gland and mucous of oral and nasal cavities
damage to dorsal and ventral cohclear nuclei
deafness in ipsilateral ear
Damage to the vestibular nuclei or nerve results in
nystagmus, vertigo, and problems with balance.
Cranial nerve 9 sx
loss of the gag reflex on the side of the oropharynx of the nerve injury
Cranial nerve 12 sx
paralysis of the ipsilateral tongue muscles, deviation towards the side of the weakness upon protrusion, atrophy, and fasciculations of tongue muscles ipsilaterally.