Sensory Neurons Flashcards Preview

CMSD5290 Intro to Neuroscience > Sensory Neurons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensory Neurons Deck (73)
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1
Q

What are sensory receptors?

A

Specialized cells that transduce, or convert
sensory energy into neural activity

2
Q

Receptors are energy ___________ and respond only to a ___________ band of energy

A

Receptors are energy filters and respond only to a narrow band of energy

3
Q

Describe the transduction of energy related to Audition.

A

Air pressure waves converted into mechanical energy, activates the
auditory receptor cells to produce AP

4
Q

Describe the transduction of energy related to Vision.

A

Light converted to chemical energy
in photoreceptors, and this is converted
into action potentials

5
Q

Describe the transduction of energy related to Somatosensory system.

A

Mechanical energy activates
mechanoreceptors which produce action
potentials

6
Q

What are receptive fields?

A

Specific part of the world to which a
sensory receptor responds to

7
Q

True or False: Communication between Neurons is CHEMICAL process not electrical

A

TRUE!

8
Q

What is the link between Receptor Density and Sensitivity?

A

Higher density of sensory receptors leads
to increased sensitivity (e.g.; Two-Point sensitivity and pitch discrimination)

9
Q

Where are photoreceptors located?

A

in the retina

10
Q

What are the two types of photoreceptors?

A

Rods and Cones

11
Q

What are Photoreceptors?

A

Receptor cells of vision

12
Q

Where are rods located?

A

Pheripheral Retina

13
Q

What are rods sensitive to?

A

Sensitive to dim light, night vision

14
Q

Where are cones located?

A

Densely packed in the fovea

15
Q

What are cones photoreceptors sensitive to?

A

Sensitive to bright light, day vision and color vision

16
Q

What occurs when we see an object?

A

Light rays pass through cornea, bended by the lens focused in retina and then transduced by photoceptors, bipolar neurons synapse with the retinal ganglion cells

17
Q

What is refraction in the visual process?

A

bending of light rays passing through cornea and lens bend (refract) light rays to focus them on the retina.

18
Q

What kind of vision defect can you suffer from a stroke?

A

Visual Field Defect

19
Q

How can visual field defect affect communication? (3)

A
  • Reading
  • Communication
  • identification of gestures
20
Q

What are the two main visual pathways?

A

Geniculostriate Pathway
Tectopulvinar Pathway

21
Q

Optic nerves leave each eye and cross at the_________

A

Optic nerves leave each eye and cross at the optic chiasm

22
Q

What portion of fibers from each eye cross at the optic chiasm?

A

But only half of fibers (nasal ½) from each eye cross

23
Q

What is the consequence of the the crossing at the optic chiasm in visual field perception?

A

The right half of each eye’s visual field is transmitted to the left hemisphere while the left half of each eye’s visual field is transmitted to the right hemisphere

24
Q

What is the order of the visual input transmission? (6)

A

Eye
Optic nerve
Optic Tract
LGN
Optic radiations
Primary Visual Cortex

25
Q

The optic tract relays the information afterwards to ?

A

LGN of the Thalamus

26
Q

The LGN projects visual information to?

A

The primary visual cortex in the occipital lobes

27
Q

What is another name for the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobes?

A

Striate cortex

28
Q

What map type of does the primary visual cortex contains?

A

Retinotopic

29
Q

What is another common name for the Geniculostriate Pathway? What does it mean?

A

The WHAT pathways, means it help us distinguish what things are.

30
Q

What is another common name for the Tectopulvinar Pathway? What does it mean?

A

The WHERE pathways, means it help us distinguish where things are.
Detects stimuli in space and helps orient us to stimuli

31
Q

What is the retinotopic map of the visual field? (2)

A

mapping of visual input from the retina to neurons
Map is upside down & inverted & reversed

32
Q

What does the Geniculostriate pathway takes part of? (2)

A

Pattern recognition
Conscious visual functions

33
Q

The right visual field projects to the ______________ cortex

A

left visual cortex

34
Q

The central visual field projects to the ______________ cortex

A

Peripheral visual cortex

35
Q

The peripheral visual field projects to the ______________ cortex

A

medial cortex

36
Q

The Upper visual field projects onto the ________________ cortex.

A

lower visual cortex

37
Q

The lower visual field projects onto the ________________ cortex.

A

upper visual cortex

38
Q

Describe Anopsia? (3)

A

Visual field deficits
Primary Sensory Disorder
Most Common after stroke

38
Q

What visual deficit can result from damage in the occipital lobe or optic radiations?

A

Anopsia

39
Q

In the tectopulvinar pathway, the optic nerve leaves the eye and projects to which colliculus?

A

Superior Colliculus

40
Q

In the tectopulvinar pathway, pathway extends from superior colliculus to_______________ of the ___________

A

Pathway extends from superior colliculus to lateral posterior-pulvinar complex of the thalamus

41
Q

In the tectopulvinar pathway, pathway extends from thalamus to other ______________ in __________and __________ lobes

A

Pathway extends from thalamus to other visual areas in temporal and parietal lobes

42
Q

Clinical Example: A.S is cortically blind but is able make judgement about spatial location. A.S’s condition is called:

A

Blindsight

43
Q

What is the cause of blindsight in the visual pathways?

A

Geniculostriate path is damaged but tectopulvinar path is spared

44
Q

What do the auditory receptors detect? (3)

A

Detect the frequency, amplitude, and complexity of air-pressure waves

45
Q

What is frequency ?

A

Rate at which waves vibrate in Hz

46
Q

What is the name of our perception of Frequency?

A

Pitch

47
Q

Low frequency sounds are typically associated to __________________ sounds and high frequency sounds are _________________ sounds

A

Low frequency sounds are typically associated to low-pitched sounds and high frequency sounds are high-pitched sounds

48
Q

What is amplitude in relation to sounds?

A

The intensity of a sound and normally measured in dB

49
Q

What is the name of our perception of intensity?

A

Loudness

50
Q

Low amplitude sounds are typically associated to ____________sounds and high amplitude sounds are _________________ sounds

A

Low amplitude sounds are typically associated to loud sounds and high amplitude sounds are soft sounds

51
Q

What is complexity related to sounds?

A

The mixture of frequencies in a sound.

52
Q

What is timbre? (2)

A

Complexity of a sound
Mixture determines the sound’s timbre or perceived uniqueness
(Provides information about the nature of a sound e.x trombone vs. violin playin the same damn note)

53
Q

What are the three anatomical divisions of the human ear?

A

OE, ME, IE

54
Q

What constitute the OE?(2)

A

Pinna and external ear canal

55
Q

What constitute the ME? (2)

A

Eardrum and ossicles

56
Q

What constitute the Inner Ear? (3)

A

Oval window, cochlea, semicircular canals

57
Q

___________ waves are _______ and transformed in the ear.

A

Sound pressure waves are amplified and transformed in the ear

58
Q

Where is the frequency of a sound transduced in the IE?

A

BM

59
Q

What are the characteristics of the BM? (2)

A

Thick at the base, tuned for high frequencies
Thin and wide at the apex, tuned for low frequencies

60
Q

What happens when the membranes are bent in the IE?

A

generate action potentials in hair cells (axons form CN 8)

61
Q

What is tonotopic theory in the BM?

A

Different points on the basilar membrane and in the cortex represent different sound frequencies

62
Q

What is the path of the auditory stimulus from the cochlea of the left ear to the Cerebral cortex?
2 hemispheres
4 levels
7 (x2 both sides) nuclei structures
VCN DCN OC TB IC MGN A1 A2

A
63
Q

The auditory nerve projects to which structure in the hindbrain? (3) CN OC TB

A

Cochlear Nuclei Olivary Complex Trapezoid body

64
Q

In the auditory pathway, the axons from the hindbrain project to the __________ aka ___________

A

Axons from hindbrain project to inferior colliculus (i.e., lateral lemniscus).

65
Q

In the auditory pathway SOME axons terminate at the ___________________ important for sound ____________ and tracking.

A

Some axons terminate at inferior colliculus. Important for sound localization & tracking.

66
Q

In the auditory pathway: Axons from inferior colliculus project to ___________________

A

medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

67
Q

In the auditory pathway: Axons from thalamus project to_____________________________________

A

primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus in temporal lobe) & secondary auditory cortex

68
Q

In the auditory pathway, Pathways cross in ______________ &_____________, and then recross in thalamus

A

Pathways cross in hindbrain & midbrain, and then recross in thalamus

69
Q

In the End: Information from each ear reaches ________________________________________

A

End result: information from each ear reaches both hemispheres

70
Q

Where are the vestibular organs located and what are their roles?

A

In the IE, balance & perception

71
Q

What bend and move when head moves in the vestibular system?

A

Hair cells

72
Q

What consists the vestibular system? (2)

A

3 Semicircular canals
Otolith organs (utricle, saccule)