Etiologies of Neurogenic Communication Disorders, Part 1 Flashcards Preview

CMSD5290 Intro to Neuroscience > Etiologies of Neurogenic Communication Disorders, Part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Etiologies of Neurogenic Communication Disorders, Part 1 Deck (64)
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1
Q

What are 7 neurogenic communication disorders?

A
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
2
Q

What are Cerebrovascular disorders?

A

Any abnormality of brain resulting from pathologic
process of blood vessels

3
Q

What is a stroke (CVA)?

A

The sudden appearance of neurologic symptoms as a result of severe interruption of blood flow

4
Q

What are some acute symptoms may occur from a stroke? (8)

A

weakness (esp.hemiparesis),
paralysis (esp. hemiplegia),
dizziness,
confusion,
headache,
visual disturbance (esp. hemianopia),
aphasia,
dysarthria

5
Q

In strokes, impairments reflect both __________ and _______ of a stroke

A

location and size

6
Q

Strokes make up _____% of neurologic disorders seen in general hospital.

A

> 50%

7
Q

What is and ischemic stroke?

A

CVA from a blocked blood vessel (approx 80% of all strokes)

8
Q

What occurs from a stroke with thrombosis?

A

Artery is gradually occluded by
accumulation of material at a given site

9
Q

What occurs from a stroke with embolism?

A

Artery is suddenly occluded by material that travelled to that site from a larger vessel

10
Q

What is an infarct?

A

Area of dead tissue (necrosis) a result of a stroke

11
Q

What is a tPA?

A

Tissue Plasminogen Activator

12
Q

What is TIA?

A

Transient Ischemic Attack

13
Q

What are the characteristics of TIA? (4)

A

–“Mini Stroke”
–Increases stroke risk
–Caused by temporary interruption of blood
supply to brain (from small embolus, partial
stenosis, or vasospasm)
–Similar symptoms to ischemic stroke but
typically last < 5 min with complete recovery

14
Q

Which artery supplies most communicative areas in the brain?

A

Middle Cerebral Artery

15
Q

What is occurring in this CT scan?

A
16
Q

What is occurring in this CT scan?

A
17
Q

What is occurring in this CT scan?

A
18
Q

What is an Hemorrhagic stroke?

A

Occurs when blood vessel in or around the brain ruptures, spilling blood into the brain or the area surrounding the brain

19
Q

What are the two types of strokes?

A

Ischemic (80% of all strokes)
Hemorrhagic (20% of all strokes)

20
Q

What occurs in this CT scan?

A
21
Q

What is a TBI?

A

Traumatic Brain Injury

22
Q

What can cause a TBI?

A

Strong external force applied to head (moving
head strikes stationary object, or vice versa

23
Q

What can cause a TBI?

A

Strong external force applied to head (moving
head strikes stationary object, or vice versa

24
Q

What is the most common cause of brain damage in people < 40 years?

A

TBI

25
Q

True or False: TBI can result from vehicle accidents, falls and sports

A

True

26
Q

What are key factors in TBI? (2)

A

Age and gender

27
Q

True or False: One TBI increases risk of more

A

True

28
Q

True or False: The effects of TBI can’t be cumulative

A

False, e.g., Dementia Pugilistica

29
Q

What are open head injuries?

A

Skull is crushed or penetrated by
foreign object (e.g., bullet), or
fragments of bone

30
Q

What accounts for a majority of fatalities following head trauma?

A

Open Head Injuries

31
Q

Explain the outcomes of survivors from OHI.

A

Outcomes vary but some survivors remain conscious and have relatively good recoveries with only focal impairments

32
Q

Symptoms of OHI depend on ___________ of injury
(e.g., ___________,
__________, ___________, ____________)

A

Location
hemiplegia
hemianopia
aphasia
hearing loss

33
Q

What are three primary injuries of OHI? (3)

A
  • Destruction of brain tissue at site of entry and along path of object
  • Damage to meninges
  • Intracranial bleeding due to damaged blood
    vessels
34
Q

What are five potential secondary effects of OHI? (5)

A
  • Destruction of brain tissue during surgical removal of foreign object
  • Ischemia (i.e., interruption of blood flow to tissue)
  • Edema (i.e., reactive swelling of brain tissue)
  • Brain infection
  • Post-traumatic epilepsy
35
Q

What are characteristics of Closed Head Injury? (3)

A
  • Blow to head which subjects brain to variety
    of mechanical forces
  • Skull remains relatively intact
  • Acceleration vs. non-acceleration injuries
36
Q

What occurs in this effect of primary injuries of CHI?

A

Brain contusions are typically seen at site of impact (i.e., coup lesion). As well, pressure during impact causes brain to hit opposite side of skull (i.e., contrecoup lesion).

37
Q

What occurs in this effect of primary injuries of CHI?

A

The orbitofrontal and anterior temporal regions
are the most common sites of contusion and are
caused by the brain rubbing against the base of
the skull.

38
Q

What are 6 secondary effects of CHI?

A
  • Edema
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Damage to major fiber tracts (diffuse microscopic lesions)
  • Post Traumatic Epilepsy
  • Ischemic Brain damage
  • Intracranial and Extracerebral Bleeding
39
Q

What occurs in this effect of primary injuries of CHI? (2)

A

Diffuse microscopic lesions that result from twisting or shearing of neurons (known as diffuse axonal injury). May be responsible for persistent neurologic deficits.
* Damage to major fiber tracts
(e.g., corpus callosum)

40
Q

What are behavioral effects of TBI? (4)

A
  • Discrete impairment of those functions mediated by
    site of contusion (esp. executive system dysfunction
    from prefrontal damage)
  • But also more generalized impairment from widespread neuronal damage (e.g., decrease in
    mental speed, concentration, cognitive efficiency)
  • TBI severity varies markedly
  • Recovery varies markedly
41
Q

What is this potential secondary effect of CHI?

A

Edema (i.e., reactive swelling of brain tissue and collection of fluid). Increases intracranial pressure

42
Q

What is this potential secondary effect of CHI?

A

Intracranial bleeding (i.e., hemorrhage) which may become a semisolid, localized mass (i.e., hematoma)

43
Q

What occurs in this effect of primary injuries of CHI?

A

Extracerebral bleeding

44
Q

What occurs in this effect of primary injuries of CHI?

A

Hydrocephalus (i.e., disturbed flow and excessive accumulation of CSF resulting in dilation of ventricles and raised intracerebral pressure)

45
Q

Hydrocephalus can cause : (2)

A
  • Ischemic brain damage
  • Post-traumatic epilepsy
46
Q

Which surface of the cortex does the MCA irrigates?

A

The Lateral surface of the cortex

47
Q

What is Epilepsy?

A

Sudden, brief attacks that may alter motor, sensory experiences and levels of consciousness

48
Q

What causes Epilepsy in the brain?

A

Caused by abnormal electrical discharges in gray matter of brain

49
Q

1/___ will experience at least 1 seizure in lifetime

A

1/20

50
Q

1/_____ will develop chronic seizure disorder

A

200

51
Q

________________ seizures develop spontaneously without other neurologic disorders

A

Idiopathic seizures

52
Q

_____________ seizures can be identified with a
specific cause (e.g., trauma, tumor)

A

Symptomatic seizures

53
Q

What are the two types of Epilepsy?

A

Partial/Focal seizures
Generalized seizures

54
Q

What are 4 characteristics of partial/ Focal Seizures?

A
  • Occur in 2/3 patients with epilepsy
  • Begin in one part of brain and might spread to other regions
  • In simple-partial seizures, there is no alteration in consciousness
  • In complex-partial seizures, consciousness is
    impaired
55
Q

Complex-partial seizures usually originates in which lobe?

A

Usually originates in temporal lobe

56
Q

With what complex-partial seizures may be associated with? (2)

A

Ongoing cognitive and emotional difficulties

57
Q

Complex-partial seizures may cause: (4)

A

absences,
hallucinations,
affective symptoms,
automatisms

58
Q

What are characteristics of Generalized Seizures? (2)

A

Occur in 1/3 patients with epilepsy
Bilaterally symmetrical without focal onset
(e.g., tonic-clonic seizures)

59
Q

What is occurring between these two types of seizures?

A

On the left: There is a focal seizure since there is an electrical surge at few electrode.
On the right: There is a generalized seizure since all electrodes of the EEG show an electrical surge in the brain.

60
Q

What are two ways to treat Epilepsy?

A

Pharmacotherapy
Surgery

61
Q

In Pharmacotherapy, __________________ drugs control seizures in about ____% of patients

A

Anticonvulsant drugs control seizures in about
70% of patients

62
Q

What are two characteristics of surgeries to treat epilepsy?

A

– Seizures need to originate from focal area and
interfere significantly with patient’s functioning
& quality of life
– May be associated with post-surgical cognitive
deficits

63
Q

Complex-partial seizures usually originates in which lobe?

A

Usually originates in temporal lobe

64
Q

Complex-partial seizures usually originates in which lobe?

A

Usually originates in temporal lobe