Higher Cortical Functions & Cognitive / Behavioral Manifestations of Brain Disorders, Part 1.2 Flashcards Preview

CMSD5290 Intro to Neuroscience > Higher Cortical Functions & Cognitive / Behavioral Manifestations of Brain Disorders, Part 1.2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Higher Cortical Functions & Cognitive / Behavioral Manifestations of Brain Disorders, Part 1.2 Deck (35)
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1
Q

H.M. became amnesic as a result of:
A) surgery for epilepsy.
B) a brain infection.
C) an automobile accident.
D) bilateral ischemic strokes.

A

A

2
Q

H.M. suffers from damage to the medial:
A) frontal lobes.
B) parietal lobes.
C) temporal lobes.
D) occipital lobes.

A

C

3
Q

Falsely reporting a memory for words that are novel but semantically related to previously encountered words is:
A) more common for amnesic patients than for normal subjects.
B) more common for normal subjects than for amnesic patients.
C) equally common for normal subjects and amnesic patients.
D) more common for epileptics than for normal subjects.

A

B

4
Q

The anatomical region that was surgically removed from H.M., resulting in his amnesia, is the:
A) hippocampus.
B) insula.
C) middle temporal gyrus.
D) mammillary bodies.

A

A

5
Q

H.M. would have the greatest difficulty answering questions about:
A) his name and childhood home address.
B) what he ate for breakfast this morning.
C) the number of days in the month of June.
D) the name of his first grade teacher.

A

B

6
Q

The process by which newly acquired information becomes a stable, permanent memory is known as:
A) consolidation.
B) stabilization.
C) reconsolidation.
D) plastification.

A

A

7
Q

Memory impairments associated with retrograde amnesia following traumatic brain injury are:
A) more pronounced for older memories than for newer memories.
B) more pronounced for newer memories than for older memories.
C) the same regardless of the age of the memory.
D) greatest for information learned after the point of injury.

A

B

8
Q

According to a theory of Tronson and Taylor, our long-term memories become subject to modification when we recall them through the process of:
A) fabrication.
B) consolidation.
C) reconsolidation.
D) reconfiguration.

A

C

9
Q

One of the proposed differences between implicit and explicit memory is that explicit memory depends on _____ processing to a greater extent than does implicit memory.
A) “top-down”
B) “bottom-up”
C) neural
D) temporal lobe

A

A

10
Q

Recalling the names of the friends who attended your sixteenth birthday party is an example of:
A) implicit memory.
B) episodic memory.
C) semantic memory.
D) semantic priming.

A

B

11
Q

Your knowledge that George Washington was the first president of the United States is an example of:
A) semantic memory.
B) episodic memory.
C) implicit memory.
D) priming.

A

A

12
Q

The results of cases such as that of M.L.’s indicate that autobiographic memory may depend on networks of structures in the _____ lobes.
A) temporal and parietal
B) frontal and parietal
C) occipital and temporal
D) frontal and temporal

A

D

13
Q

A patient who can recall the names of past presidents but cannot recall any specific memories from his or her own childhood would MOST probably be suffering from a disconnection syndrome involving the:
A) uncinate fasciculus.
B) corpus callosum.
C) arcuate fasciculus.
D) medial forebrain bundle.

A

A

14
Q

In the explicit memory model proposed by the authors, the medial thalamus is reciprocally connected with the:
A) brainstem monoaminergic cell groups.
B) temporal lobe structures.
C) posterior parietal cortex.
D) primary motor cortex.

A

B

15
Q

Which ascending system in the brainstem do the regions that make up the explicit-memory circuit NOT receive input from?
A) acetylcholine
B) dopamine
C) norepinephrine
D) serotonin

A

B

16
Q

The weight of evidence now suggests that memory processes:
A) require only temporal lobe structures.
B) depend on cortical and subcortical structures.
C) require only neocortical networks.
D) depend on a single anatomical system.

A
17
Q

The weight of evidence now suggests that memory processes:
A) require only temporal lobe structures.
B) depend on cortical and subcortical structures.
C) require only neocortical networks.
D) depend on a single anatomical system.

A

B

18
Q

The efferents from the hippocampus that appear to be involved in temporal lobe amnesia are to be found in the:
A) fimbria fornix.
B) hippocampal-amygdala bundle.
C) uncinate fasciculus.
D) corpus callosum.

A

A

19
Q

Which of the following brain structures are proposed by the authors to be involved in explicit memory processes?
A) entorhinal cortex
B) ventral thalamus
C) basal ganglia
D) cerebellum

A

A

20
Q

According to the HERA model, the right prefrontal cortex is particularly involved in _____, whereas the role of the left prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in _____.
A) episodic memory encoding; episodic memory retrieval
B) semantic memory encoding; semantic memory retrieval
C) implicit memory encoding; explicit memory encoding
D) episodic memory retrieval; episodic memory encoding

A

D

21
Q

Memory impairments observed in amnesic individuals are MOST commonly observed in the domain of:
A) classical conditioning.
B) perceptual priming.
C) skills memory.
D) declarative memory.

A

D

22
Q

Your memory of how to ride a bicycle is an example of:
A) retrograde memory.
B) explicit memory.
C) implicit memory.
D) episodic memory.

A

C

23
Q

The finding that amnesic patients show normal priming effects is evidence for:
A) independence of explicit and implicit memory.
B) confabulation.
C) unreliability of findings with amnesic patients.
D) lack of retrograde amnesia.

A

A

24
Q

The Gollin Incomplete-Figures Test is used to assess:
A) motor skills, a category of implicit memory.
B) priming, a category of explicit memory.
C) priming, a category of implicit memory.
D) avoidance, a category of emotional memory.

A

C

25
Q

Impaired implicit memory would MOST likely result from damage to the ascending modulatory neurotransmitter system, which releases:
A) dopamine.
B) acetylcholine.
C) serotonin.
D) norepinephrine.

A

A

26
Q

Degeneration of the cells of the basal ganglia is responsible for:
A) Parkinson’s disease.
B) Huntington’s chorea.
C) Korsakoff’s syndrome.
D) Asperger’s syndrome.

A

B

27
Q

Evidence from Huntington’s disease patients suggests that the basal ganglia are particularly important for:
A) explicit memory.
B) implicit memory.
C) conditioned response learning.
D) episodic memory.

A

B

28
Q

The acquisition of an associative memory for the pairing of a tone stimulus and an air puff to the eye depends on circuits in the:
A) basal ganglia.
B) cerebellum.
C) amygdala.
D) insula.

A

B

29
Q

Fear conditioning is hypothesized to depend on connections between the:
A) amygdala and hypothalamus.
B) amygdala and cerebellum.
C) hippocampus and cerebellum.
D) amygdala and thalamus.

A

A

30
Q

Enhanced neural activity during the delay phase of a task requiring short-term memory for the location of a stimulus in space would MOST likely be observed in the:
A) primary visual cortex.
B) orbitofrontal cortex.
C) frontal eye fields.
D) superior temporal cortex.

A

C

31
Q

Transient global amnesia can be produced by all of the following EXCEPT:
A) ischemic attack.
B) hypoglycemia.
C) epilepsy.
D) congenital abnormalities.

A

D

32
Q

H.M.’s amnesia condition differs from that of Korsakoff’s syndrome in amnesic patients because H.M. does NOT show:
A) anterograde amnesia.
B) retrograde amnesia.
C) confabulation.
D) emotional dulling.

A

C

33
Q

An amnesic subject who earnestly tells stories about his past that are demonstrably untrue is showing the symptom known as:
A) fugue state.
B) anterograde amnesia.
C) confabulation.
D) reconsolidation.

A

C

34
Q

Korsakoff’s syndrome is an amnesic disorder that MOST commonly results from:
A) psychological trauma.
B) chronic alcoholism.
C) thiamine overdose.
D) traumatic brain injury.

A

B

35
Q

The symptoms of Korsakoff’s syndrome can sometimes be arrested by massive doses of:
A) anticholinesterase drugs.
B) thiamine.
C) vitamin A.
D) L-DOPA.

A

B