Session 2 - Embryology Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 - Urinary > Session 2 - Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 2 - Embryology Deck (61)
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1

What tissue in the tri-laminar disc does the kidney develop from?

• Intermediate mesoderm

2

What are the two areas post-gastrulation where there is no mesoderm between ecto and endoderm?

• The buccopharyngeal membrane (oral cavity)
• Cloacal membrane (anus)

3

How is the intermediate mesoderm organised?

• 3 systems develop sequentially
• Disappearance of one system marks the onset of development of the next

4

What is the first part of the renal system to develop?

• The pronephros

5

What is the second part of the renal system to develop?

• The mesonephros

6

What is the third part of the renal system to develop?

• The metanephros

7

What four structure make up a nephrotome?

• Glomerulus
• Bowman's capsule
• Proximal & distal convoluted tube
• Collecting duct

8

What is the pronephros?

• First kidney system in humans

9

What is the function of the pronephros?

• No direct function
• Provides pronephric duct which extends from the cervical region to the cloaca and drive the development of the mesonephros (becomes mesonephric duct)

10

What is the urogenital ridge?

• Region of intermediate mesoderm giving rise to both the embryonic kidney and the gonad

11

Is the mesonephros a functional kidney?

• Yes, but has no water conserving mechanism
• Has a very important role in the development of the male reproductive tract

12

What makes up the embryonic kidney?

• The mesonephros
• Made up of mesonephric tubules and the mesonephric ducts

13

In what direction do the mesonephric tubules develop?

Caudal to pronephric

14

Why is the mesonephros only thought of as a partial kidney?

• Can produce urine, but cannot concentrate it

15

How does the mesonephric duct drive the development of the definitive kidney?

• Sprouts the ureteric bud

16

Aside from driving the development of the definitive kidney, give a role of the mesonephric duct

• Drives development of male reproductive system

17

Where does the ureteric bud induce development of the definitive kidney?

• Within the intermediate mesoderm of the caudal region of the embryo

18

What is the collecting system of the kidney derived from?

• The ureteric bud

19

What is the excretory component of the kidney derived from?

• The metanephric tissue cap
• Intermediate mesoderm under the influence of the ureteric bud

20

What is the ureteric bud the primordium of?

• The ureter
• Renal pelvis
• Calices
• Collecting tubules

21

What is the "ascent" of the kidney?

• The metanephric kidney first appears in the pelvic region
• Undergoes an apparent caudal to cranial shift, crossing the arterial fork formed by vessels returning blood from the fetus to the placenta

22

Do the kidneys truly ascend?

• No, body undergoes cranial to caudal shift around them

23

What happens to blood supply of the kidney during ascendion?

• Kidneys receive blood from those arteries closest to them

24

Why is variation in renal blood supply so common?

• Due to the kidneys constantly changing blood supply during development
• Additional renal arteries may be present, or superior or inferior pole vessels

25

When would hydronephrosis occur?

• As a result of an inferior pole artery obstructing the ureter

26

What happens if the ureteric bud fails to interact with intermediate mesoderm?

• Renal agenesis will occur

27

What is one sided renal agenesis called?

Unilateral

28

Give five ways other ways things go awry in kidney development?

• Migration goes wrong
• Wilm's tumour
• Duplication defects
• Ectopic ureter
• Cystic disease

29

Outline a migration defect of the kidney

• If kidney fails to cross the arterial fork, it will end up lower than it should
• If this happens to both kidneys, a horseshoe kidney may appear due to fusion

30

How can duplication errors occur (e.g. 2 ureters)?

• Splitting of the ureteric bud (partial or complete)