Session 10 - Further glomerular damage Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 - Urinary > Session 10 - Further glomerular damage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 10 - Further glomerular damage Deck (25):
1

What are two types of asymptomatic glomerula disease caused by?

• Microscopic haematuria
• Microscopic proteinuria

2

What is asymptomatic glomerula disease often associated with?

• Hypertension

3

What investigation is used for asymptomatic glomerula disease?

What investigation is used for asymptomatic glomerula disease?
• Cytoscopy

4

What is microscopic haematuria cuased by? (3 things)

• Renal stones/tumours
• Arteriovenous malformations
• Glomerula disease

5

What is microscopic proteinuria caused by?

• Non-nephrotic proteinuria <3.5g/24hrs
• Associated with glomerulonephritis

6

Describe macroscopic haematuria

Brown/smoky colour

7

What does macroscopic haematuria need to be distinguished from?

Haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and consumption of food dyes

8

What is the main cause of macroscopic haematuria?

• IgA nephropathy

9

Describe nephrotic syndorme

• A non-specific disorder where the kidneys are damaged and leak a large amount of protein into the urine

10

What is the classic triad of symptoms in nephrotic syndrome?

• Proteinuria (>3.5g/24hrs
• Hypalbuminaemia
• Oedema
○ Hypelipidaemia

11

How is nephrotic syndrome investigated?

• Biopsy from bottom of kidney to get cortex

No glomeruli in medulla

12

Give three types of nephrotic syndrome

• Minimal change glomerulonephritis
• Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
• Membranous glomerulonephritis

13

Define nephritic syndrome

• A collection of sings associated with disorders affecting the kidneys (specifically glomerular disorders) characterised by having small pores in the posocytes of the glomerulus large enough to permit proteins and red blood cells

14

Give 8 symptoms of nephritic syndrome

• Rapid onset
• Oliguria
• Hypertension
• Generalised oedema
• Haematuria with smoky brown urine
• Normal serum albumin
• Variable renal impairment
• Urine contains blood protein and red blood cell casts

15

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of onset speed

• Nephrotic - Insidious

• Nephritic - Abrupt

16

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of oedema

• Nephrotic - Lots of oedema

• Nephritic - less than nephritic

17

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of blood pressure

• Nephrotic - No change

• Nephritic - Increase

18

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of JVP

• Nephrotic - No change/Decrease


Nephritic - Increase

19

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of Proteinuria

• Nephrotic - Lots of proteinuria

• Nephritic - Some protein uria

20

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of Haematuria

• Nephrotic - May or may not occur

• Nephritic - Very much present

21

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of Red cell casts

• Nephrotic - Absent

• Nephritic - Present

22

Differentiate between nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in terms of Serum albumin

• Nephrotic - Decrease

• Nephritic - No change/slightly reduced

23

What are the eight main ways in which nephrotic and nephritic syndrome differ?

• Onset
• Oedema
• Blood pressure
• JVP
• Proteinuria
• Haematuria
• Red cell casts
• Serum albumin

24

What is rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

• A clinical situation in which glomerular injury is so severe that renal function deteriorates over a couple of days
• Patient may present as a uraemic emergency with evidence of extrarenal disease
• Associated with cresentic glomerulonephritis

25

What is the natural progression of glomerulonephritis, and what are the three main symptoms?

• Chronic kidney injury
• Hypertension
• Dipstick abnormalities
• Uraemic syndrome
What is chronic renal failure associated with?
• Small, smooth shrunken kidneys
Give five main symptoms of chronic renal failure
• Tiredness and lethargy
• Breathlessness
• Nausea and vomiting
• Aches and pains
• Sleep reversal