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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (121)
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61

How are lamellae of bone arranged

concentric circles around Haversian canals

62

Within the lamellae of concentric rings lie the.....

lacuna with osteocytes

63

Canaliculi

Extend between adjacent lamellae

64

Do red blood cells have nuclei

NOOOOOO

65

Do RBC divide when out of marrow?

NOOOOOO

66

What is RBC main function

to transport oxygen

67

In children, red marrow also called ___? is _____ and resides where?

also called myeloid tissue is hemopoietic (blood maker) and fills the medullary cavity

68

Myeloid

pertaining to the marrow

69

Hemopoietic

formation of blood/blood cells

70

Where is most of the marrow in adults? (age 30)

in the medullary cavity; its YELLOW marrow that stores fat (long bones)

71

In older adults (age 70), what is yellow marrow mostly replaced with?

Gelatinous marrow- no tremendous function; bones become more fragile

72

Ossification

making of bone

73

intramembranous ossification

Occurs within a membrane of soft tissue that represents the location of a future flat bone (ref. to skull). Its cells differentiate into osteogenic cells and osteoblasts, (in skull of fetus) and trabecular are formed

74

What did the bones of the skull used to be?

membrane of soft tissue

75

How do osteoblasts form bone?

they form on the trabecular and lay down an organic matrix and deposit calcium phosphate within it; when trapped, they become osteocytes.

76

Achondriatic dwarfism

cartilage stops diving so bones won't grow anymore

77

Endochondrial ossification

bone formation using a cartilage model. in the center of the model is the primary ossification center where lacunae enlarge and minerals are deposited around them. (cartilage becomes bone)

78

Whats the primary ossification center for endochondral ossification?

cells of the PERICHONDRIUM develop into a periosteum (bone lining) where osteogenic cells and osteoblasts produce bone on the OUTSIDE of the model

79

Where on the cartilage model is bone produced

Outside of it

80

What is formed on the inside in the center of the cartilage model in endochondral ossification

A primary marrow space is formed

81

What is the metaphysis?

The transition between the head of hyaline cartilage and the primary marrow space; "meta-" = middle and "-physis" = to grow

82

How many zones does the metaphysis exhibit that represent the stages of ossification

5

83

Where do secondary ossification centers form at birth?

In the epiphyses of long bones

84

What happens to the epiphysis at the secondary ossification center

It's hollowed out from the center outward and is replaced by bone

85

Where does cartilage remain until adulthood?

at the epiphyseal plate

86

Deficiency of vitamin A

retards bone development

87

deficiency of vitamin C

results in fragile bones

88

deficiency of vitamin D

rickets: metabolic disorder: phosphorous/calcium
osteomalacia= bone softening

89

osteomalacia

bone softening

90

Excess of vitamin A

cause lysosome cells to burst prematurely