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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (121)
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91

Insufficient growth hormone

dwarfism

92

excessive growth hormone

gigantism

93

insufficient thyroid hormone

delays bone growth

94

sex hormones

promote bone formation: stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates

95

physical stress

stimulates bone growth

96

Resorption

the process of dissolving bone to release its minerals to the BLOODSTREAM
Osteoclasts dissolve bone

97

What do osteoclasts dissolve bone with

Acid phosphatase

98

The skeleton serves as a reservoir for...

calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals that play important roles in physiology

99

Hypocalcemia

excessively low calcium concentration that causes the nervous system to become hyper excitable (lose ability to stay calm)

100

What can result from hypocalcemia

muscle tetany

101

Hypercalcemia

excessive calcium which can cause nervous system depression and sometimes cardiac arrest

102

Calcium storage

into bone

103

calcium resorption

into blood

104

What controls balance between calcium storage and calcium resorption?

Two hormones:
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH)

105

calcitonin

Acts t o LOWER blood levels of calcium by stimulating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts

calci[ton]in= TONE it down, too much calcium

106

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Raises blood calcium when it drops too low; stimulates osteoclasts, lessens urinary excretion of calcium, and stimulated the synthesis of vitamin D

107

Where is body is vitamin D produced?

skin, liver, and kidney; need it from an outside source

108

Calcitrol

most active form of vitamin D; produced together by the skin (with UV light), live, and kidney

109

What does calcitrol promote?

Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate while reducing urinary elimination of these minerals

110

Hematoma

Bruise; can result from bone fracture from torn blood vessels

111

Order of healing of bone fractures

hematoma---> soft granulation tissue forms as blood vessels grow into hematoma ---> macrophages remove debris ---> fibroblasts deposit collagen----> chondroblasts form fibrocartilage callus (soft first, replaced w/ bony tissue)

112

How long is the area of a fracture remodeled?

3-4 months until broken bone fragments are resorbed

113

Two ways fractures may be set by

1. closed reduction- no surgery; caste
2. open reduction- surgical placement of bones using pins and plates

114

Orthopedics

branch of medicine dealing with injuries/disorders of bones, joints, and muscles

115

Osteoporosis

MOST COMMON bone disease in which bone lose mass and become brittle

116

Whose most prone to osteoporosis

elderly, postmenopausal white women (black women rarely afflicted)

117

Kyphosis

From osteoporosis, spine becomes compressed

118

Disuse osteoporosis

occurs at any age due to immobilization or inadequate weight-bearing exercise

119

Reasons for falls among elderly

frailty, decrease in muscle strength, decreased coordination; side effects of medicine; slowed reaction time due to stiffening joints; poor vision and/or hearing, disease (cancer, arthritis, infection)

120

Organic matter in bone

GAGS