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Anatomic pathology > Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Deck (352)
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270

Sebaceous carcinoma: Hormonal receptor.

Androgen receptor (demonstrable by IHC).

271

Sebaceous carcinoma: Predictors of poor prognosis (5).

Size greater than 1 cm.

Poor differentiation.

Multicentricity.

Extensive invasion of tissues.

Lymphovascular invasion.

272

Sebaceous carcinoma: Behavior in the Muir-Torre syndrome.

Much less likely to metastasize.

273

Giant congenital nevus: Benign associations (2).

Leptomeningeal melanocytosis.

Neurological disorders.

274

Giant congenital nevus: Malignant associations (2).

Melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma.

275

Giant congenital nevus: Typical histologic feature.

Infiltration of nevus cells into septa of subcutaneous fat.

276

Congenital melanocytic nevus: Histology (2).

Nevus cells congregate around adnexa and blood vessels and infiltrate between collagen bundles.

277

Congenital melanocytic nevus: Histologic pitfall.

Presence of occasional mitotic figures in dermal nodules does not make it a melanoma.

278

Spitz nevus: Mitotic figures.

May be present but are usually not atypical and do not occur at the base of the lesion.

279

Spitz nevus: Non-melanocytic histology (3).

Epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis and orthokeratosis.

Papillary dermal vascular ectasia.

Patchy perivascular lymphocytes and histiocytes.

280

Halo nevus:

A. Age group.
B. Anatomic site.

A. Children and young adults.

B. Back.

281

Halo nevus: Histology of melanocytes.

Early: Large and atypical.

Late: Absent.

282

Special sites of melanocytic nevi (6).

Scalp.

Acral skin.

Periauricular skin.

Periumbilical skin.

Breasts.

Genitals.

283

Lentigo maligna: Clinical definition.

Melanoma in situ on sun-exposed skin.

284

Superficial spreading melanoma.

Melanoma with extensive pagetoid spread.

285

Clark's levels.

I: Melanoma in situ.

II: Extension into papillary dermis.

III: Filling of papillary dermis.

IV: Extension into reticular dermis.

V: Extension into subcutis.

286

Genes implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma (6).

CMM1.

p16.

CDK4.

BRAF.

NRAS.

MEK (a kinase of MAP kinase).

287

Desmoplastic melanoma: Immunohistochemistry.

Positive: S100.

Negative: Mart-1, HMB45.

288

Angiokeratoma: Non-vascular histology.

Epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis.

289

Cavernous hemangioma: Syndromes (3).

Maffucci's: CH + multiple enchondromas.

Kasabach-Merritt: CH with thrombosis leading to consumptive coagulopathy.

Blue-rubber-bleb: CH + vascular proliferations in the gastrointestinal tract.

290

Pyogenic granuloma vs. bacillary angiomatosis.

Bacillary angiomatosis contains clumps of granular basophilic material in which bacilli can be identified with Warthin-Starry or Giemsa stain.

291

Kaposi's sarcoma: Epidemiological types (4).

Classic: Elderly men in S. and E. Europe.

Endemic: Young natives of Central Africa.

Epidemic: HIV patients.

Iatrogenic: Immunosuppressed patients.

292

Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma: Anatomic sites.

Trunk, mucous membranes.

293

Kaposi's sarcoma, patch stage: Histology (3).

Slit-like spaces between collagen bundles.

Promontory sign.

Extravasated red blood cells.

294

Kaposi's sarcoma, plaque stage: Histology (3).

Short fascicles of spindle cells.

Diffuse proliferation of irregular vascular spaces.

Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules.

295

Kaposi's sarcoma, nodular stage: Histology (4).

Spindle cells and vascular spaces form nodules.

Nuclear atypia and mitotic figures.

Extravasated red cells and hemosiderin-laden macrophages.

Conspicuous hyaline globules.

296

Kaposi's sarcoma, late aggressive stage: Histology.

Resembles aggressive sarcoma.

297

Kaposi's sarcoma: Special staining of hyaline globules.

PAS positive, diastase resistant.

298

Epithelioid angiosarcoma: Morphology of neoplastic cells.

Large and pleomorphic; abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm; large nucleus with large nucleolus.

299

Epithelioid angiosarcoma: Histologic architecture (2).

Asymmetrical proliferation.

May lack distinct vascular spaces and thus resemble carcinoma or melanoma.