Flashcards in Skin Deck (352)
Sebaceous carcinoma: Hormonal receptor.
Androgen receptor (demonstrable by IHC).
Sebaceous carcinoma: Predictors of poor prognosis (5).
Size greater than 1 cm.
Extensive invasion of tissues.
Sebaceous carcinoma: Behavior in the Muir-Torre syndrome.
Much less likely to metastasize.
Giant congenital nevus: Benign associations (2).
Giant congenital nevus: Malignant associations (2).
Giant congenital nevus: Typical histologic feature.
Infiltration of nevus cells into septa of subcutaneous fat.
Congenital melanocytic nevus: Histology (2).
Nevus cells congregate around adnexa and blood vessels and infiltrate between collagen bundles.
Congenital melanocytic nevus: Histologic pitfall.
Presence of occasional mitotic figures in dermal nodules does not make it a melanoma.
Spitz nevus: Mitotic figures.
May be present but are usually not atypical and do not occur at the base of the lesion.
Spitz nevus: Non-melanocytic histology (3).
Epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis and orthokeratosis.
Papillary dermal vascular ectasia.
Patchy perivascular lymphocytes and histiocytes.
A. Age group.
B. Anatomic site.
A. Children and young adults.
Halo nevus: Histology of melanocytes.
Early: Large and atypical.
Special sites of melanocytic nevi (6).
Lentigo maligna: Clinical definition.
Melanoma in situ on sun-exposed skin.
Superficial spreading melanoma.
Melanoma with extensive pagetoid spread.
I: Melanoma in situ.
II: Extension into papillary dermis.
III: Filling of papillary dermis.
IV: Extension into reticular dermis.
V: Extension into subcutis.
Genes implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma (6).
MEK (a kinase of MAP kinase).
Desmoplastic melanoma: Immunohistochemistry.
Negative: Mart-1, HMB45.
Angiokeratoma: Non-vascular histology.
Epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis.
Cavernous hemangioma: Syndromes (3).
Maffucci's: CH + multiple enchondromas.
Kasabach-Merritt: CH with thrombosis leading to consumptive coagulopathy.
Blue-rubber-bleb: CH + vascular proliferations in the gastrointestinal tract.
Pyogenic granuloma vs. bacillary angiomatosis.
Bacillary angiomatosis contains clumps of granular basophilic material in which bacilli can be identified with Warthin-Starry or Giemsa stain.
Kaposi's sarcoma: Epidemiological types (4).
Classic: Elderly men in S. and E. Europe.
Endemic: Young natives of Central Africa.
Epidemic: HIV patients.
Iatrogenic: Immunosuppressed patients.
Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma: Anatomic sites.
Trunk, mucous membranes.
Kaposi's sarcoma, patch stage: Histology (3).
Slit-like spaces between collagen bundles.
Extravasated red blood cells.
Kaposi's sarcoma, plaque stage: Histology (3).
Short fascicles of spindle cells.
Diffuse proliferation of irregular vascular spaces.
Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules.
Kaposi's sarcoma, nodular stage: Histology (4).
Spindle cells and vascular spaces form nodules.
Nuclear atypia and mitotic figures.
Extravasated red cells and hemosiderin-laden macrophages.
Conspicuous hyaline globules.
Kaposi's sarcoma, late aggressive stage: Histology.
Resembles aggressive sarcoma.
Kaposi's sarcoma: Special staining of hyaline globules.
PAS positive, diastase resistant.
Epithelioid angiosarcoma: Morphology of neoplastic cells.
Large and pleomorphic; abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm; large nucleus with large nucleolus.