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Flashcards in Social Learning Deck (56)
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A father puts his son in his room every time the boy hits his sister. To increase the probability that the boy will stop hitting his sister, the father should:

Punishment, like all forms of behavior therapy used to reduce undesirable behaviors, is most effective when used in conjunction with reinforcement for alternate desirable behaviors. In this case, the 50 cents would represent reinforcement (a stimulus that increases the probability of a behavior) for the alternate desirable behavior of being nice
give the child 50 cents each time he is nice to his sister.


Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) multi-component model of working memory includes?

According to the multi-component model, working memory consists of a central executive and three subsystems -- the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.

The central executive is the primary component of working memory and acts as an "attentional control system."


__________ inhibition occurs when the ability to remember new information is impaired by previously acquired information.

This theory proposes that forgetting occurs when the ability to recall information is affected by previously learned or subsequently acquired.

___________ interference occurs when newly learned information interferes with old information

Proactive inhibition occurs when old (previous) learning interferes with the learning or recall of new (subsequent) information

Interference Theory

Retroactive -( bye to the old and in with the new.) Retroactive inhibition occurs when recently learned information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information.


What is the tip of the tongue forgetting referred to as?

Cue-Dependent Forgetting_ forgetting results when cues needed to retrieve information from long term memory are insufficient or incomplete. Due to inadequate retrieval cues


What are the three processes of memory?

What two models explain how memory works? And what are their components/levels?

According to the processing model, which is the deepest level of processing and produces the greatest recall?

Encoding, Storage, Retrieval.

Information processing (Multi-Store) Model: describes three components:
-sensory memory (Brief: echoic and iconic: retain or represent the original form of the sensation.)
-short-term memory (primary/passive memory (chunking)
-working memory) , and long-term memory (recent (secondary) memory and remote memory(elaborate rehearsal. Encoding semantic)

Levels of Processing Model: differences in memory are due to differences in depth of processing instead of separate memory stores.
-Structural: to remember a word you focus on structural/physical properties (Capital letters)
-phonemic: Sound (what does the word rhyme with?)
-semantic. (meaning)



The existence of separate short and long-term memory is supported by studies of______ . These studies show that when given a list, those items in the beginning and the end are remembered. Why does this occur? If delayed then what happens?

-serial position effect.

Primacy and recency effect : Primacy - rehearsed and stored in long-term memory
recency still in short term

Only the primacy will be remembered.


What are the components of Long-term memory and how are they explained?

Declarative is subdivided into what two types? What is the first to go with age and part of episodic memory?

What two aspects of LTM correspond to procedural and declarative memory that require either automatic or conscious recollection.

Which type of LTM involves remembering to do things in the future?

Procedural memory: stores information on how to do things and is used to acquire, retain, and employ perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills and habits.
Declarative memory: what you learn _ acquisition of facts.

Semantic: general knowledge
episodic (autobiographical) --- flashbulb

implicit and explicit

prospective memory


According to Beck, ___ are systematic errors or biases in the information processing and are the link between maladaptive cognitive schemas and negative automatic thoughts.

_____ is drawing conclusions without collaborative evidence>

_____ drawing general conclusions based on one event.

______ __________ attending to detail while ignoring the total picture.

___________ erroneously attributing external events to one's self>

____ ______ Either or ways of thinking.

______ _____ believing things are a certain way because you feel they are a certain way.

Cognitive distortions

Arbitrary inference : occurs when a person draws a conclusion about an event or experience without there being corroborating evidence and/or when there is contradictory evidence.:


selective abstraction


Dichotomous Thinking

emotional reasoning


According to Beck, __________ are surface level thoughts that intercede between the event or stimulus and the individual's emotional and behavioral reactions: these thoughts are not necessarily associated to dysfunction but can become dysfunctional schemas if not carefully examined.

Automatic thoughts are repetitive, automatic self-statements that are elicited by certain stimuli and that are associated with strong emotions.


What diagnosis represents the cognitive profile of: negative view of the self, the world, and the future?

What diagnosis represents the cognitive profile: excessive form of normal survival and consists of unrealistic fears about psychological threats?

Depression (cognitive triad)



_____ involves reducing reinforcement; for example, from a continuous to an intermittent schedule.

While _____________ involves the gradual removal of prompts.

What is the difference?



Thinning involves reinforcements.


_______ occurs when a punishment loses its effectiveness.

____________ occurs when a reinforcer loses its effectiveness.

Habituation: punishing a boy for hitting his sister and increasing the time he has to stay in his room for each incident.

Satiation (eating too many hamburgers)


According to interference theory, _________occurs when old (previous) learning interferes with the learning or recall of new (subsequent) information.

And __________ occurs when recently learned information (new) interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information (old).

Proactive inhibition

Retroactive inhibition


Sandy Y. has been instructed to limit (control) the number and kind of stimuli that are associated with cigarette smoking. By doing so, smoking will become associated with (under the control of) a restricted number of stimuli. This operant technique is used to reduce the frequency and/or strength of a behavior.

This is a form of positive punishment and involves applying a penalty following an undesirable behavior and then having the individual practice more appropriate behaviors in an exaggerated fashion. It is most useful for the treatment of socially inappropriate and self-injurious behaviors.

On the other hand, this involves requiring the individual t deliberately repeat the undesirable behavior until it becomes aversive.

Another type of punishment involves the removal of a specific positive reinforcement each time a behavior is performed. Ex: Sandy Y., she might have to give up an hour of watching television each time she smokes

One of them, stimulus control, involves stimulus discrimination, or learning to respond differently in the presence of different stimuli. When a behavior is under the control of stimuli in this manner, the behavior is said to be under stimulus control.

Positive Punishment : Overcorrection

Opposite Negative Practice.

-Response Cost: negative reinforcer that involves removing a specific reinforcer each time the target behavior is performed.


Why is Time out not a form of extinction?

Time out involves removing all sources of a reinforcement for a specific period of time that may or may not have been established or maintained by that reinforcer
Extinction is continuous removal of a reinforcer from a previous reinforced response.


Why is Time out not a form of extinction?

When is time out most effective? Is during of the time out important?

In regarding to decreasing behavior with extinction, it is important to remember that it's effectiveness is influenced by?

Time out involves removing all sources of a reinforcement for a specific period of time that may or may not have been established or maintained by that reinforcer

Extinction is continuous removal of a reinforcer from a pervious reinforced response.

Time out is most effective when it's combined with reinforcement for an alternative behavior and when it begins with a brief explanation why.


-consistency of extinction:
-schedule: continuous, or if intermittent schedules: fixed, or variable interval is best
-Magnitude and duration
- reinforce other behaviors.


The effectiveness of a positive reinforcer is influenced by:

Contingency: should be available only when the target behavior is performed
-Schedule of reinforcer: continuous to intermittent (thinning)
-magnitude: greater the amount, the greater it's effectiveness: Past the point--satiation
-verbal clarification
-Prompts: -positive discriminative stimulus. the reminder to clean one's room is discriminative stimulus as it signals praise once the job is done. --- gradual removal of prompts--Fading


According to this model, whether a person uses the ____ route (carefully considers an argument) or ______ route (relies on heuristic criteria) depends on several factors including the nature of the message and the person's mood. With regard to the latter, a person is more likely to rely on the ______ route when he/she is in a good mood.





What is the difference between Prejudice, Stereotype, Discrimination, and Privilege?

Prejudice: affective-negative feelings towards a person/group
Stereotype: cognitive: beliefs about a person based on group membership
Discrimination, Behavior: unequal treatment of a person/group based on membership or social categorization
Privilege: Aspects of American power system that occurs when the rights or benefits belongs to one group


What is the Field Theory?

What are the behavioral consequences of unresolved tension in the field and proposes that memory tends to be better for uncompleted tasks then for completed because uncompleted tasks create the greatest psychic tension?

-Approach-approach Conflict
-avoidance-avoidance Conflict
-approach-avoidance-- when moving towards a goal, the avoidance force becomes stronger. move away then the approach becomes stronger
-Double approach-avoidance_ most difficult to resolve

-Zeigarnik Effect


Methods for improving memory

An _________ is made up of words beginning with the first letter of each word or phrase that is to be remembered. For example, the acrostic "my very educated mother just sent us nachos" is used to memorize the names of the eight planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune).

______________involves grouping related items of information. To remember a string of 21 numbers, for instance, you might chunk the numbers into groups of three, resulting in seven distinct units of information.

The ________ is an imagery mnemonic that is useful for paired associate tasks in which two words must be linked. It involves creating an image for each word and visually joining the two images. As an example, to remember that the French word for church is eglise, you could form an image of a church with a giant egg outside the church doors.

An ____________ is a word that is formed using the first letter of each item in a list.

________ is the principle that the greater the similarity between the way information is encoded and the cues that are present at the time of recall, the better the recall.

Information is more likely to be transferred from short-term to long-term when new information is made more meaningful by relating it to existing knowledge. What is this called?


Chunking: Chunking is useful for maintaining information in working memory.

keyword method: imagery mnemonic that is useful for paired associate tasks in which two words must be linked.

acronym: For example, the acronym HOMES is used to remember the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).

Encoding specificity: this prediction is confirmed by research on state-dependent learning which shows that recall information is sometimes better when the leaner is in the same emotional state during learning and recall- anxious while studying and anxiety during the test= greater recall.

Elaboration Rehearsal


Mnemonic Devices are?

____ involves visually associating items to be remembered with a series of places (loci) already in memory-- learned in grade school

_______ is another imagery technique that is useful for paired associate tasks in which two words must be linked.

__________ is a verbal mnemonic that is a work that is formed using the first letter of each item in the list.

______ is a phrase or rhyme that's constructed form the first letter of each word that is to be memorized.

Mnemonic devices are formal strategies for improving memory and are classified as visual or verbal.

Method of loci ( visual mnemonic)

the keyword method (good to learn a foreign language)

Acronym: RAID for the primary symptoms of acute stress disorder: (re-experiencing, avoidance, increased arousal, dissociative) : ADDRESSING ( Age, Development Disability, Religion, Ethnicity, socioeconomic, sexual orientation, -- indigenous....

Acrostic: See Piaget Creep Forward


Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that moderate levels of arousal ______ the efficiency of learning and performance, while extremely _____ and _____ levels are associated with ______ efficacy. What is the relationship between arousal and learning?

moderate arousal--maximize learning and performance
extremely low and high --- decrease

This is inverted-u relationship ^


Miller proposed that short-term memory can hold how many units of information?

Short-term memory is very limited in terms of duration and capacity, but the latter can be expanded by "chunking" information into meaningful units.

Miller proposed that short-term memory can hold between 5 and 9 units of information and that the ability to hold larger amounts of information is due to chunking information into groups of related items.


What is declarative memory and episodic and sematic ?

Procedural ?

What is the most common way that memory is divided?

Different experts categorize the types of memory in different ways. One frequently cited method divides memory into procedural and declarative memory with declarative memory including semantic and episodic (autobiographical) memories.

Episodic memory is a record of personally experienced events.

Semantic memory stores information about language, facts, and concepts.

Procedural memory stores information about how to do things (e.g., ride a bicycle, play tennis).

Some authors use the term "representational memory" to refer to memories for general knowledge, common sense, and skills.


Thermal (peripheral skin-temperature) biofeedback is useful for?

Respiratory biofeedback is used as a treatment for?

Electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback provides information on brain wave activity and is used to treat?

Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback provides feedback on muscle tension and is used to treat

Thermal (peripheral skin-temperature) biofeedback provides information on blood flow and is a useful treatment for a number of circulatory disorders including those listed in this question.

Respiratory biofeedback is used as a treatment for asthma and other conditions that involve problems related to breathing.

Electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback provides information on brain wave activity and is used to treat insomnia, epilepsy, and several other neurological disorders.

Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback provides feedback on muscle tension and is used to treat tension headaches, bruxism, back and neck pain, and incontinence.


A response is brought under stimulus control when the person learns to respond in situations in which reinforcement is likely but not in situations in which no reinforcement (or punishment) is likely.

This refers to the use of an intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement.

This is a type of reinforcement in which successive approximations to the desired response are reinforced.

This is a behavioral technique that is used to reduce an undesirable behavior and replace it with a more desirable one.

Stimulus control

Partial reinforcement




______________ are ways of organizing and interpreting experiences that develop in early childhood and may be latent until later in life when they are activated by stress.



Theories suggest that information is stored how in short term memory?

Studies have found that errors in short-term memory usually involve a confusion of letters that sound alike, thereby supporting the theory that information is stored acoustically in short-term memory. Of the letters listed in the responses, only "D" sounds like "T".


Is relaxation training as effective as biofeedback for problems including tension headaches , hypertension, general anxiety, insomnia, and lower back pain. Thermal biofeedback is the treatment of choice for what?
which is characterized by a decrease in blood supply to the fingers. Thermal biofeedback and autogenic training is a treatment for?

The research has shown that, for most disorders that it has been applied to, biofeedback has beneficial effects, but these effects do not exceed those associated with other treatments. For hypertension, biofeedback seems to be about as effective as relaxation training and self-monitoring.

Raynaud's disease

Migraine headaches

(EMG for incontinence-- side note)