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Flashcards in Clinical Psychology Deck (89)
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What theory uses the miracle question and looks at the ____ not the problem? What are the other questions used in this approach and what is the purpose of asking these questions? What is the structure of the session? How is the therapist and client viewed

Solution focused.
Miracle questions suppose when you go to sleep tonight a miracle happens and your problems are resolved, how will you know that this occurred? and what will be different?
"scaling questions: "on a scale from 1 to 10, how did you feel last week? and how motivated are you?
"Exception Questions: "can you think of a time in the past week when you did not have the problem?
Purpose_ help the client recognize their strengths and resources to achieve specific goals
Initial session involves identifying goals, responding to the miracle question, identifying exceptions and instances of success and rates current status. Homework: formula task
"what is better since the last time we met?"
Client-expert and therapist collaborator/consultant


What theory uses these techniques: consciousness raising, self liberation, social liberation, dramatic relief, self evaluation and reinforcement management?
What was it originally developed for? And what is the focus of treatment

Transtheoretical Model:
18 approaches that lead to 10 Change processes (interventions) additional interventions: stimulus control, supportive relationship
Treatment focus: behavioral change" factors that facilitate behaviors


What approach sees the client as an expert and the therapist as a consultant/collaborator?

Initial session involves identifying goals: Stating goals in positive concrete (behavioral) terms helps the client recognize when he or she is accomplishing his or her goals and has been found to be a good predictor of outcome., responding to the miracle question,
Solution Focused
Client as the expert


What are the 6 stages of changes in Prochaska's transtheoretical change model?

-1.) Precontemplation: little insight and does not intend to denial, unsuccessful previous attempts. (temptation is high)- no action, high urge
-2)Contemplation: aware of need to change, not committed to change, aware of pro and con (decision balance- in all but more so in this stage) may be ambivalent and stay in stage for a long time
3) Preparation Stage: plans to take action
(self efficacy needed: hope to move from cont. to prep. and further)
4) Action: takes concrete steps
5) Maintenance: maintain changes- 6 mo.
6) Termination


What therapy targets issues of unresolved grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits

interpersonal therapy


What treatment is used for alcohol addiction, smoking, eating disorders, diabetes, and pain management? What theories was it derived from? what is the focus and goal of this treatment approach

Motivational interviewing
Person centered; empathy, reflective listening and responding and- responding to resistance in a unconfrontational way. Bandura- self efficacy: addresses the client's beliefs about her ability to change
Focus- address factors that impede change
Goal: motivation to change and to help them examine and resolve ambivalence to change


Express empathy, develop discrepancies between current behavior and personal goals/values, roll rather than oppose resistance, support self efficacy are the 4 general principals of what approach? and what is the acronym used to summarize these goals?

Motivational interviewing
OARS- open ended, affirmation, reflective listening, summaries.


Carl Rogers proposed that a person may attempt to relieve anxiety by relying on what? When do incongruences between self and experience occur? What is the primary goal of therapy and what are the three conditions that allow this to occur? Is transference necessary?

incongruence between self and experience produces unpleasant psychical sensations that are subjectively experienced an anxiety. In other words, anx. is a threat to a unified self
-anxiety is alleviated by the defensive maneuvers of perceptual distortion or denying experiences that produce incongruence. incongruence between self and experience occurs during conditions when the individual experiences conditions of worth.
goal to help the client achieve congruence between self and experience.
- with the right environment, the client can achieve this on their won through their own inherit tendency of self actualization (potential).
-3 facilitating conditions:
Uncond. positive regard (Respect; no judgement and care)
Genuineness ( Congruence: communicate own feelings honest)
Accurate Empathetic Understanding: (reflect feelings) U>G>A
- transference is NOT necessary (acknowledge but not interpret) and NO directives


George Kelly's personal construct theory focuses on the role of "personal constructs" which is described as? What determines the psychological process? Rejecting the medical model, Kelly described anxiety and hostility as what? The therapist is considered and goal of therapy?

Bipolar dimensions of meaning. (happy/sad, competent/incompetent, friendly/unfriendly)
-how the person construes events (perceives, interprets, and predicts)
Anx. result of inadequate personal constructs- when one recognizes that the events one confronts are outside their construct: Hostility-relies on constructs that are not valid and force people and objects to fit into those constructs.
Therapist and clients are co-experimenters
Goal replace maladaptive constructs so the client can better make sense of their experiences.


What approaches uses assessments such as the repertory grid that identifies people who have different roles in the clients life and identify ways in which these people are similar and different, self characterization sketch and fixed role therapy?

Personal Construct Therapy:
self characterization sketch: client described themselves based on the point of view of someone they know.
fixed role: adopt or "try on" different constructs and adopt alternative constructs- have the client experiment with other ways of life by having them play the role of a fictional character.


What are the stages of identity development in Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model? What preferred therapist own other or dominant?
And how are they determined?

Atkinson et al.'s model distinguishes between five stages:
-conformity (white therapist) positive attitude towards dominant and depreciates own
- dissonance (other ethnic group) confusion/conflict over contradictory appreciate and depreciate-problem culture
-resistance/immersion: rejects dominant appreciates self and own group (own ethnic)
-introspection: Conflict between loyalty to group and own personal autonomy open to white therapist but prefers own group
-integrative awareness multicultural perspective (same worldview)

-Each stage in this model is characterized by a different combination of attitudes toward one's own minority group, other minority groups, and the majority (dominant) group.


Can older adults benefit from therapy similarly as young adults?

What is the most effective way to treat older adults?

Do most older adults benefit from short or long-term therapy?

Should therapy only focus on negative thoughts and be in the present?

When working with older adults, it is important to remember that there is greater variability among older people than younger people on a range of what characteristics?


the research has generally found that older adults benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapies and other forms of therapy to the same degree as do younger adults. However, the effectiveness of therapy with older adults may be enhanced when certain modifications to therapy are made
that older adults generally benefit most from cognitive-behavior therapies when therapy is presented at a slower pace and is conducted at an abstract level (i.e., at a level that focuses on schemas and relationship scripts rather than on simple cognitions).

-Long-term usually their problems are chronic

- No. The emotions of older adults are generally more complex than those of younger adults, and emotional reactions to events often consist of a mixture of positive and negative emotions. Consequently, it is usually best to focus on both the positive and negative connotations of emotions in therapy. In addition, allotting some time in therapy for older adults to reminisce about the past (rather than focusing only on the present) is beneficial.

on a range of characteristics (physical health, cognitive skills, income, etc.).


Give an example of a situation where the therapist is prescribing a symptom?

A family therapist instructs a family member to continue performing the target behavior and to do so in an exaggerated way.

Prescribing involves instructing the client to maintain and/or exaggerate the target symptom.


Give an example of a situation where a therapist is reframing

Reframing involves shifting the meaning or frame of reference of symptomatic behavior.


Two children are selling lemonade. "We will both be in charge of the money and make the sign together." As they sell the lemonade "It looks like I am selling more lemonade than you" What type of communication interaction is this? symmetrical or complementary?
What theory did this originate from?
Name some specific communication styles identified by Satir that affect family interactions and relationships?
What are the basic assumptions?

symmetrical = reflects equality

-originated from the communication/interaction family therapy.

-communication styles
-placating, blaming, super reasonable, irrelevant, and congruent.

Basic assumptions:
-communication is behavior
-all communication has a "report" functioning(content: information) and a "command" functioning (often nonverbal and makes a statement about the relationship)
-communication patterns are either symmetrical (equal) or complementary (unequal: one assumes that dominant role and other submissive "I will play mommy and you are my sick baby"
-parallel patterns are a combination of both


What is the name of the technique when the therapist accepts and exaggerates the client's assertions about his or her problem (symptom)
What type of intervention is this?
What approaches use paradoxical interventions? What is the intention behind these techniques?


-paradoxical intervention

-Strategic family therapy and Milan systemic use these techniques in a different way
-Strategic; elicit resistance and see the symptom in a different way and show that they have control over their behaviors
-system: used so the family can gain information and bring insight into how the family can derive solutions to their own behavior


What family therapy approach uses the techniques of Hypothesizing ( usually tested with the family and revised through the course of therapy), Neutrality (therapist as ally), Paradox ( counter paradox/therapeutic double bind and positive connotations/reframing) and Circular questioning.
Why ask circular questions?

-Milan systemic Family Therapy- work in a team of therapist and use a two way mirror

-Circular questioning helps the family to recognize the differences and similarities in their perception : " Who was more upset, mom or dad?"


What are the four types of consultation derived from Gerald Caplan?
Why did Gerald Caplan develop mental health consultation?

-Client centered case consultation teacher to make more effectively with a student
-Consultee centered case consultation :teacher with the class (group/class) theme interference-transference
-Program centered Administrative Consultation (existing programs)
-Consultee-centered Administrative Consultation- help administrative personnel improve professional functioning in the future with regard to program development, implementation, and evaluation

-He quickly recognized that it was not feasible to provide direct services to patients due to their large number and, consequently, developed an indirect approach (consultation) that increased his ability to ensure that patients received adequate treatment.


What are the Stages of Consultation?

-Entry - resistance usually occurs and requires clear purpose and collaborative relationship


What are the four categories of acculturation purposed by Berry? and what do they mean?
Phiney and Devich-Navarro proposed 6 what are they?

1-integration: maintains own minority culture but integrates some dominant (biculturalism)
2-assimulation accepts majority culture while relinquishing own culture (client)
3- Separation: withdrawals from dominate culture (client's mom)
4- marginalization: does not identify as dominant or own

1-assimulated: individual has given up his/her own ethnic culture and identifies with the larger (dominant) culture.
2-fused (melting pot: separate cultures cannot be distinguished)
3-blended bicultural ( integrated ethnic and American)
4- alternating bicultural: distinct ethnic and American
5- separated (only ethnic) immersed in his/her own ethnic culture and is not part of the larger (dominant) culture.
6- marginal


What refers to how a person perceives his/her relationship to nature, other people, institutions ect.? This is impacted by people's ____ and is determined by what two factors?

White middle class therapist have a _____ and would work poorly with an African American client with a ______.
Black Lives movement shows ?

World view
cultural back grounds and experiences

locus of control and locus of responsibility



How does Carl Roger define self actualization?

Rogers, it refers to an internal biological force that serves as a major source of motivation and guides the individual toward positive, healthy growth.


This type of family therapy can be characterized as "manipulative, unyielding, and crisis provoking" . It uses a number of techniques to restructure a family's transactional patterns including marking boundaries, escalating stress, utilizing symptoms, and manipulating mood. Using this approach, a therapist might imitate, in an exaggerated way, the family's style in order to point out their dysfunctional patterns?

According to this theory, all families have an ______ structure that determines how members relate to each other

What are the 3 chronic boundary problems (rigid triads)?

Does this approach focus on behavior or insight?

What are some of the therapy techniques and interventions in this approach

Structural Family Therapy
Implicit structure

rigid triads
1-Detouring: focus on child
2- Stable coalition: gang up against one parent
3-Triangulation: demand child side and gang up on other parent

Behavior not insight -action leads to change

-evaluating family structure- family (structural) map
-restructuring family-unbalance or stress the family- enactment/role play, reframing,
:here and now, directive and concrete.


According to Helms a white therapist's identity status has an impact of the process and types of interactions. Of her three type of interactions, which is the most effective? Which leads to inertia?

According to Helm's white racial Identity Development, identity development involves two phases _______ and ____________. there are 6 status that involve different information process strategies to reduce discomfort. What status are white people in who claim that all life matters?
What status would view white people as victims of reverse discrimination?
What status occurs when a person abandon's racism? And what status occurs when an individual develops a non-racist identity

Progressive- most effective
Parallel interaction -inertia

Regressive; is bad the client is at least one level above the therapist in their racial identity development-early termination.

-1-Contact Status
-3-Reintegration Status- selective perception and negative outgroup distortion

2- Disintegration Status
3- Reintegration

4- Pseudo Independence Status-intellectual level
5- Immersion-Emersion- White Privileges
6- Autonomy Status


n comparison to repressed memories recalled without hypnosis, under hypnosis, you would be most likely to recall:

The studies have found that hypnosis produces more memories but that many of these memories are inaccurate or confabulated.


From the perspective of traditional psychoanalysis, transference is: What does the term transference refer?

Transference is considered a key component of psychoanalysis, and the interpretation of a client's transference helps guide him/her toward insight. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, at the core of transference is resistance, or an unwillingness to relinquish one's fantasy that one's infantile wishes will be gratified.
It is referred to the client's relationship with the therapist


Freud's __________ theory posits that personality has what three structures? _________ from birth and includes the individual's life and death instinct which serve as a source of _____ ________. It operates on the basis of the _______ ________ and seeks immediate gratification of instinctual drives in order to avoid tension. The Ego develops at about _____ Months as a response to the Id's inability to gratify all of it's needs. It operates under the ________ principle. The Ego defers gratification of the Id's instinct until an object is available in reality and then employs secondary process thinking ____ _____ _____ .
The Superego emerges around ___ or ___ yrs. and represents_____ that is conveyed by the ______

Id, Ego, super ego.
Psychic energy.
Pleasure principle.
6 months
Reality Principles.
rational, realistic, planning.

society's values, parents.


When the Ego can not ward off danger it resorts to what? What is the basic defense mechanism that underlies all other defense? Other defense mechanism are and involve what?

Defense mechanisms.
reaction formation: avoiding anxiety by expressing the opposite.
Projection: when a threatening impulse of attributed to another person, or external source.


Cross's (1991, 2001) Black Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes between what four stages of identity development? Movement through the stages occurs how?

What stage involves high salience, a idealizes black culture and feel a great deal of rage towards the white as well as feelings of guilt and anxiety about their own previous lack of awareness regarding race and begins to internalize a black identity?

What three identities does a Black/African American person adopt in the internalization stage?

In what stage does a person exhibit healthy cultural paranoia?

pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization.
Movement occurs as the individual is exposed to events that increase the salience of race.

-immersion-emersion. An African American individual in the immersion substage is immersed in African American culture, which is evident in his/her interests, speech, style of dress, actions, choice of friends, etc. This individual also feels a great deal of rage toward Whites. During the emersion substage, the person's intense emotions subside but he/she continues to reject White culture and begins to develop a more sophisticated African American identity.

-pro-black, non-racist (Afrocentric) orientation, bi-culturist orientation, or a multicultural orientation,

emersion of immersion-emersion stage is more likely to exhibit cultural paranoia, which Ridley defined as a healthy reaction to racism


What are the primary techniques of analysis?
Improvement in psychoanalysis is attributed to a combination of ?

free associations, dreams, resistance and transference
=catharsis, insight and working through