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Flashcards in Lifespan Deck (170)
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Self Awareness

Self Awareness (realization that you are separate from others)
9- 24 m: recognize self in mirror- and in photos
19 - 30m can describe themselves. -evaluative terms bad/good.
- 2-6: concrete physical characteristics, behaviors and preferences
6 - 10; competencies
10 -12 emotions are directed to self; I would be ashamed of myself; and personality; popular girl
adolescents: inner thoughts and feelings
have an emotional response to bad doing- self conscience is forming


Age adopt occurs to develop a strong bond

"late adoptees" (children placed in adoptive homes after age 4) are able to form strong bonds when the adoption occurs by age 6. Those adopted between the age of 4 to 6. however, they are prone to social and emotional problems and an excessive need for adult attention and over friendliness towards unfamiliar adults.


Onset of the ability to recall the past occurs
Developmental changes in deferred imitation

Physical and behavioral evidence that the nueral mechanisms required for long-term memory recall undergo significant development during the second half or the first year. 75% of infants 6,9, or 11 months can imitate at east one action (remove a mitten) after a delay for 24 hours


Chromosomal Disorders

Autosomal Chromosome Disorders: The individual inherits too many or two few
Cases per Birth
• Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is caused by an extra chromosome 21 and
includes a combination of birth defects. Affected individuals have some degree
of intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, often heart defects, and
other health problems. The severity varies greatly among affected individuals.
1 in 691
1 in 300 births at
age 35
• Trisomy 13 is caused by an extra chromosome 13. Affected individuals have
multiple birth defects and generally die in the first weeks or months of life.
1 in 7,906
• Trisomy 18 is caused by an extra chromosome 18 and the affected individual
also has multiple birth defects and early death.
1 in 3,762
Sex-Linked Chromosomal Disorders: The disorder occurs on chromosome pair
#23 or the sex chromosomes.
Cases per Birth
• Turner Syndrome is caused when all or part of one of the X chromosomes is
lost before or soon after conception due to a random event. The resulting zygote
has an XO composition. Turner Syndrome affects cognitive functioning and
sexual maturation in girls. Infertility and a short stature may be noted.
1 in 2500 females
• Klinefelter Syndrome is caused when an extra X chromosome is present in the
cells of a male due to a random event. The Y chromosome stimulates the growth
of male genitalia, but the additional X chromosome inhibits this development.
The male can have some breast development, infertility, and low levels of
1 in 650 males


Habituation and dishabituation research

3 m. infants begin to exhibit recognition memory for a visual stimuli for up to 24 hours, decrease response to the second presentation for a stimulus for a period of 24 hours. Also demonstrates early recognition and memory



Phoneme: smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from the others: p,b.d: pad, pat, bad and bat
Morpheme: Smallest grammatical unit of sound- String one + phoneme: smallest meaningful unit of language: Submarine 2 morphemes (sub-marine) 8 phoneme s,u,b,m,a,r,i,n (e is silent)
Semantics: set of rules to obtain meaning in the morpheme
Syntax: Rules of language to construct sentences (adj. and Adverbs)
Pragmatics: social side, how we communicate effectively and appropriately with others, (turn taking, volume, eye contact)


Physical Maturation in Adolescence

GIRLS: 11 to 12: early; poor self concept, not popular, dissatisfied with physical development, low academic achievement, engage in sexually precocious bx. and drug and alcohol use; Late: "little girls" dissatisfied with physical appearance, outperform academically.
BOYs: 13 to 14 : Early; popular, athletic, dissatisfied body image, increase risk for drug/alcohol. delinquency and dep. Late: childish, attention seeking behaviors, lose confidence,


drinking during pregnancy

structural (physical) abnormalities-organs: CNS, heart, eyes, legs and arms, external genitalia: occurs during the first trimester
2nd and 3rd trimester: behavioral and psychological deficits
-fetal alcohol syndrome, neurodevelopmental disorders


Gender Identity

Fully established by 3 yrs.
-psychosexual: resolution of psychosexual crisis of phallic stage
-Cognitive develop. Theory: Kohlberg.
Gender Identity: 2/3 yrs
Gender Stability:
Gender Constancy: constant over situation/change in external appearance does not matter
-Social Learning Theory: reinforcement and observation: gender stereotypes.
Bem: Shema: Soc. Learning and Cog. Develop.


Head Start

IQ gains decline but academic achievement persists into adolescence.



- Secure attachment: explores while caregiver is present and may engage with stranger, play with toys and bring toys to caregiver, maybe upset when caregiver leaves and happy when returns
- Ambivalent/ anxious. wary of the situation, particularly the stranger, clings to caregiver rather then play with toys, extremely distressed when caregiver leaves and ambivalent when returns or rushes to caregiver and fails to be comforted when picked up.
-Avoidant/ anxious/insecure : will avoid or ignore mother, show little emotion when the caregiver, leaves/returns. Run away from mother when she approaches, will explore little no matter who is in the room. Stranger is not treated that much different from caregiver-mother, avoidant, impatient and unresponsive or provide too much stimulation
- Disorganized/Disoriented: fear of caregiver, cry during separation separation but avoid caregiver when returns. or may approach caregiver then freeze or fall to the floor--inconsistent way of coping


Theories of emotion

William James: expr of emotions is an interpretation of PHYSIOLOGICAL changes occurred when perceiving stimuli of different emotional values
Schachter and Singer: emotional changes as a reaction to CONTEXT-independent of emotional arousal
Richard Lazurus: (personality)- role of appraisal and coping
Ekman: emotion in behavior: evolutionary history of social signals, facial expression is universal signals (facial action coding system)
Kagan: physiological behavioral response-fear response. Behavior and physiological outcomes of fear learning.


Bronfenbrenner's ecological model

(human development in context); process (dynamic
interactions between the developing person and the people, objects, and symbols in their immediate setting or context that take place over time-reciprocal), person ( behavioral predisposition, resources, and demand characteristic -ex family members interact with male vs female), context (below: physical and psychosocial environments where the developing person interacts) and time (operates on multiple levels)
5 environmental Levels:
micro (me: direct interactions)
meso (my messy interactions/intersections-home and school settings)
exso (exists in my social media community: connections in settings that do not contain but directly influence the person)
macro: (culture, economic conditions and political belief-magnificent beliefs)
chrono (chronological change in my lifespan)



4 periods
early adult transition -ideal life
the age 30 transition settling down
the Midlife Transition time since birth to time left to live
Only a minority of men and women experience a midlife crisis


Behavioral inhibition

behavioral inhibition (degree of approach or withdrawal from new situation) is a temperamental style that has a biological etiology and is relative stable over time, but can be modified by environmental factors
High degree of bx inhibition as infants-shy and fearful as toddlers and cautious and introverted as preschoolers-
overprotected parenting style increase behavioral inhibition -preventing them from developing coping skills.
basic temperament quality of inhibition= CNS- is key determinate of later personality


limitations of Preoperational Stage

egocentrism: trouble understanding another person's point of view
irreversibility- ( can not understand that an object can belong to two classes) centration; focus on most notable features-
magical thinking
pre casual reasoning
intuitive sporadic and isolated cognitive expressions not tight operations


Adult Attachment Interview

Autonomous-coherent descriptions of their childhood relationships with their parents: consistent despite favorable or unfavorable reactions-missing, needing and depending on others, open and free to explore interview topic -ready flexibility of attention -ease with imperfections can change view of person or event during the interview-suggesting autonomy and objectivity
dismissing, provide positive descriptions but descriptions are not supported or are contradicted- avoidant: low scored on coherence and high on idealization or derogation, high scores on lack of memory in childhood: describes self positively as independent, strong, or normal. Little or no articulation of hurt, distress, or feelings of needing or depending on others downplays negative experience-may described those experiences as making the self stronger. May emphasize activities with parents or object/presents. topics seem foreign and abstract
preoccupied: become angry or confused when describing relationship with their parents -resistant/ambivalent : low coherence, high passive or angry preoccupation with experience of being parents


errors in short-term memory usually involve a confusion of letters that sound alike, thereby supporting the theory that information is stored ____ in short-term memory. Of the letters listed in the responses, only "D" sounds like "T".



development of depth perception

Kinetic cues
binocular cues
pictorial cues
prefer faces by 4 days
Moms face - 2 m


Concrete Operational

(7-11/12) Logical Thinking; equilibrium- totality of concepts into a full system
Reversible system: create logic relations to all aspects of a phenomenon
Logic- no longer socialization but a consequence of logo mathematical deduction operations and cooperation are mutual
Decentering: increase attention to transformation
-conservation and horizontal decalage


Research on Divorce

period after divorce is characterized by a "diminished capacity to parent" mothers are more punitive but punishments are often times more inconsistent , both parents becomes more self involved and spend less time with their child,
"sleeper Effect" delay of problematic behaviors in children following divorce of their parents. signs of negative impact of divorce appears when the child reaches adolescence or early adulthood: study found that in girls-those who seem well adjusted following divorce as children are at an increase risk of anti social behavior, low self esteem, early sexual activity and neg attitudes towards marriage as adults
Most at risk for divorce: marrying at a younger age and having a child 7 mos of marriage


Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development

Sensory Motor (0-1.5/2) Pre-operational (2-7), concrete operational (7-10), Formal operational (11-15/16 +)


Harry Harlow

infant monkey's preferred physical contact of soft terrycloth over hard wire surrogate


Mirror self recognition: Gyorgy Gergely

the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror (1.5 and 2 yrs.) required a certain level of cognitive development- one pre-requisite is the construction of a "visual feature representation or the typical physicals appearance of the not-directly visible part of the body


__________ refers to the tendency of preoperational children to mentally link certain experiences, whether or not they actually have a causal relationship.

Transduction (also known as transductive and precausal reasoning)


Developmental Milestones

1 -3m. turns head fingers to mouth
4-6 m rolls, 5 m sits on lap and reaches, 6 sits, and stands w help
7-9 m sits, 9 pulls up and stands
10 - 12 stands, walks w help 12m steps 13-15 walks, 16 creeps upstairs
16 - 24 runs, walks upstairs uses spoon
25- 48 jumps, rides bike, dresses handedness


Tolamn pruposed that learning often takes place without being manifested in performance improvements. Thus learning can be ____. Through his studies with rats in mazes, he argued that reinforcement is a important factor in the performance of a response but is not necessary for the learning of that response.


We can learn without candy but we will perform what we learned with candy


PKU is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person with the disorder has inherited one _______ from each parent. A person is homozygous with regard to a PKU when he or she has ________, while a person is heterozygous with regard to PKU when he or she has______ . ("P" refers to a normal allele and "p" refers to the recessive allele for PKU.)

When both parents are heterozygous for PKU (Pp), ___% of their offspring will not have the disorder and will not be carriers of the disorder (PP); ___% will be carriers of the disorder (Pp); and 25% will have the disorder (pp).

recessive allele (p)
two recessive alleles for that condition (pp),

two different alleles (Pp). ("P" refers to a normal allele and "p" refers to the recessive allele for PKU.)



separation from parents

prior to 3 mo. little or no consequences
9 m or older; moderate to extreme-sleep and eating problems social withdrawal, increase stranger anxiety physical aggressive or clinginess to new mother


Cognitive Development
Information Processing

cognitive development is the ability to notice, store, and retain info. task specific,
Focus on mental operations and view cognitive development as due to changes in mental capacity and increasing sophistication in the use of relevant rules and strategies. , not interested in stages of development. is continuous/ no critical period.