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Flashcards in Industrial Organizational Psychology Deck (107)
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Needs theorist of motivation
Cognitive Theory of motivation

Needs: Maslow : 5 basic needs instinctual
Two Factor Theory: lower level needs -hygiene factors-dissatisfiers: when there not necessary unsatisfied: context-surrounds the job- supervisor, working condition, pay. relationship with co workers: if all met does not lead to satisfaction/motivation but will keep them satisfied
High: (motivators/satisfiers); content; what you are actually doing on the job- need to achieve, opportunity. increase satisfaction and motivation. if not met then neutral not dissatisfied; formed the idea of job enrichment
McCellands" Need Theory : achievement, power, affiliation: High nACH: moderate goals (don't want to mess-up but not be bored)

Cognitive Theory: how we think about things
-VIE: expectancy (think it is possible to succeed), instrumentality ((operant conditioning: Instrumentality refers to the belief that good performance will be rewarded. expect rewards), and valency (value of the rewards- will how value to you) will succeed on EPPP, reward-license- value-practice independently. money
Equity theory: (effects motivation but how we think of things-does it appear to be fair or not) self inputs (effort put in the job) and self outcome (what you get out of it, pay, rewards) related to other's output and other's outcome (Social Comparison)
Goals Setting Approach- set specific goals, intermediate to high level to difficulty, feedback, accept goals--
(Reinforcement Model - people will do things that have rewarding outcome, nothing do not continue, punish then stop)


What is the difference between the Hawthorne effect, Halo effect , central tendency error and contrast effect?

Hawthorne" improvement in job performance resulting from participating in a study


Methods of training are classified as either on the job or off the job techniques. Which is more widely used and what are the advantageous/ disadvantages of both?

What are some of the techniques?

On-the-job techniques are most widely used and have more advantages. They permit active participation, ongoing feedback, have job relevance, and provide maximum opportunities for transfer of training. : job rotation and cross-training

Off the job tech.; provide more opportunity to focus on and practice specific job elements, provide supplemental information, and to use professional trainers, and flexibility to tolerate learning errors. -Disadvantage: low trainee motivation, restricted transfer of training, higher costs.
--vestibule training, Behavioral learning (Bandura/ take downs)


job enrichment impacts? how does this vary?
What is the difference between job enrichment and job enlargement?

Job satisfaction
Varied- impacts more: young educated, skills to do the job, high needs of achievement (nACH)
Anxiety provoking: Low nACH,

enrichment- vertical loading give more higher level jobs
enlargement- horizontal loading-increasing tasks variety of tasks but not responsibility or more autonomous
Both targets upper level needs- reduce boredom.


Why would you be committed to working in an job performance, personal stress and family organization?

affective commitment: emotionally attached to the company
Continuance commitment: social and monetary cost of leaving: lose coworker friendships (no happy hour) and loss of income.
Normative Commitment: feel obligated to stay: only worked for 1 month need to stay on for at least 4 months before leaving.
Affective commitment : I hate this company- more turnover, absenteeism, personal stress and family, job performance,
continuance commitment-turnover.


Aderfer ERG means

Existence, relatedness and growth: not hierarchical at the same level, just because you meet a need you do not move on to the next- like to do creative things, write a book which inspires you to be more creative.


Examples of centralized communication network

The wheel (all subordinates hear command s from one superior, the Y and the Chain (top to bottom flow of communication-one way flow of communication: CEO to Manager to worker) are examples of centralized networks because all communication passes through one person: More efficient for simple tasks and less satisfaction.
Decentralized: (circle meet all members of the group, all channels) information flows more freely and does not go only through one person- better for complex tasks and higher job satifiaction


What are the four commonly used data collection methods in organizational development

- interviews, questionnaires/survey (identify values, attitudes and beliefs) , observations (overt behaviors and interactions), and secondary (archival) sources (productivity and performance).

Nadler recommends using multiple methods to ensure that the collected data is complete and unbiased. However, of the four techniques, questionnaires are most useful for collecting quantitative data from a large number of individuals.


Why would you be committed to working in an organization?

affective commitment: emotionally attached to the company
Continuance commitment: social and monetary cost of leaving: lose coworker friendships (no happy hour) and loss of income.
Normative Commitment: feel obligated to stay: only worked for 1 month need to stay on for at least 4 months before leaving.
Affective commitment : I hate this company- more turnover, absenteeism, personal stress and family, job performance,
continuance commitment-turnover.


The ____________ hypothesis is also known as the Yerkes-Dodson Law predicts that, for every activity, there is an optimum level of arousal and that arousal above or below that level has a negative impact on performance. In other words _________ levels of arousal are associated with the _____ levels of performance

inverted-U theory

moderate: highest


What are the types of organizational justice?

Procedural justice refers to the fairness of the ways in which procedures and policies are implemented. perceive how "goods" were allocated- credit for work/ bonus: how much money was set aside by the organization not individually distributed

Interactional justice refers to how people feel about the quality and content of interpersonal interactions. The interpersonal treatment received by individuals as the "justice" is carried out--boss response

Distributive justice refers to the fairness of the outcomes of organizational procedures and policies. Fairness in what they received. the individual: bonus amount

Retributive justice refers to rectifying a wrongdoing in a way that is proportionate to the wrongdoing.


A person-organizational fit is achieved primarily through?

person-organizational fit- match between the employee's values, needs, preferences ect. and the culture of the organization. -values of the individual match values of the culture of the company : linked to enhanced satisfaction motivation (nACH, High level needs) and organizational commitment (affective, continuance, normative)


What are some formal methods for resolving conflict?

What are the types of arbitration?

Formal methods to resolve conflict: Bargaining (most common)
-Bargaining: (negotiation) effectiveness depends on participant's overview of the bargaining process as either win lose or win win- ( benefits for both sides are maximized)
-Mediation: Neutral third party (the duck) can offer recommendations but has no formal power- role is to clarify issues and open lines of communication: mediation process involves: setting the stage, problem solving, and achieving a workable agreement
-Arbitration: more authority: controls both process and outcome:
----Binding arbitration: two side agree in advance to accept the settlement
----Voluntary: agree only to the arbitration process
----Conventional: arbitrator is free to choose any settlement solution
----Final offer arbitration: arbitrator must select one of the final offers made by the disputants.


How do you evaluate training programs? What are the approaches?

Kirkpatrik's Four level criteria- reaction, learning, behavior, and results
Utility Analysis: mathematical equation to estimate gains and losses
Formative vs. Summative evaluations-formative (while it is forming) being developed Summative (summed up) after the program has been implemented. determine how much learned and cost


In the context of Holland's theory of vocational choice, a high degree of differentiation means what?

Holland used the term differentiation to describe the extent to which a person has clearly defined interests. A person who scores high on one of his interest scales and low on all other scales is highly differentiated.

According to Holland, the importance of a good "fit" between a person's interests and the characteristics of the job is most important for those who are highly differentiated. -
High degree of differentiation suggests an increase predictability of a person environment interaction


A comprehensive needs assessment includes?

A comprehensive needs assessment includes an analysis of the job requirements, the people performing the job, and the goals of the organization.


What are the three types of organizational justice related to fairness in organizational change?

In fairness research, there is a focus on what a person receives (distributive justice) and how perceived “goods” are allocated (procedural justice), and then there is the interpersonal treatment received by individuals as the “justice” is carried out (interactional justice). For the most part, organizational justice is concerned with the ways in which employees decide if they been treated fairly in their jobs and the conditions in which those determinations influence other work-related variables.


What are the effects of poor job satisfaction?

Is job satisfaction a good predictor of job performance?

poor performance-this relationship is weak
job satisfaction DOES NOT mean good job performance
Turnover, absenteeism, and tardiness, strongest relationship is between satisfaction and turnover moderated by unemployment-
Physical and mental health- emotional burnout: lowered self esteem, depression and anxiety

-NO: Job satisfaction is a good predictor if longevity and mental and physical health but not job performance, Good predictor of health but NOT performance


The research indicates that decentralized networks, in which no one individual has greater access to information, are best for what types of tasks. Centralized networks, on the other hand, are better for _____ tasks.

The research indicates that decentralized networks, in which no one individual has greater access to information, are best for_ complex, unstructured tasks that have a number of different solutions. Centralized networks, on the other hand, are better for _simple, structured tasks.


Transformational Leader
What is a transactional leader

What did Ohio figure out?

Transformational leaders recognize the need for change (transformation) and are able to communicate that vision to their followers and gain their commitment to it.
One characteristic of transformational leaders is that they attempt to raise the level of consciousness, awareness, and commitment of their followers and to strengthen their ability to control their own destinies. As well as appeals to morality and justice--using framing: to defining the organizations goals and activities in a way that is meaningful.
--Seek to empower their workers

Use legitimate status to gain compliance and appeals to the self interest of the followers: focuses on stability and change, emphasizes behaviors that are normal related work behaviors and rely on reward and punishment and appeals to the self interest of the workers.

There are 2 basic leadership behaviors 1- considerate: warmth, concern, rapport and support--person oriented 2--- Initiating structure: defines, directs, and structures- task oriented


What is criterion deficiency

What is criterion contamination?

the extent to which a criterion measures do not assess all aspects of the ultimate (accurate and complete) criterion


Herbert Simon has proposed that Rational decision-making in organizations most often fails because?

rational decision-making often fails because the decision-maker often "satisfices" (rather than "maximizes"); i.e., he/she chooses the first satisfactory alternative rather than continue to search for the optimal alternative due primarily to inadequate information about the problem and alternative solutions, to a lack of time and money, and to limits on the decision-maker's own intelligence.


Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision making is based off of what theory? and claims that a person's career decisions are influenced by what 4 factors? Unlike the other theories, Krumboltz theory did not focus on matching an individual to their job but on _______________

reinforcement theory and the work of Bandura
environmental conditions and events
learning experiences,
task approach skills that are the result of the interact between the other three

Continual learning and self development. Krumboltz proposes that career decisions are based on what the individual has learned and that career decisions are based primarily on what we have learned, especially from our interactions with others


What are the worker characteristics of job satisfaction in relation to disposition, age, race/ethnicity, Gender, Occupational Level, and life satisfaction?

Disposition: there is a genetic factor to job satisfaction
Age: U shaped relationship where job satisfaction is high when people begin their career, decreases with and rises with increased age.
Race/Ethnicity: minorities report lower levels of job satisfaction compared to whites. Most consistent with African Am. compared to Whites.
Gender: similar However, women less when experience exploitation, in lower level positions, and comparable worth
Occupational level: increases with occupational level
Life Satisfaction: positive correlation between job and life satisfaction: why mostly likely income, personality traits, and other variables


Name some different methods used for job selection

General Mental Cognitive Ability tests:
Highest validity coeff.
Job Knowledge Test:
Personality Tests:
Interest Inventory: susceptible to faking- more valid for predicting job choice, satisfaction and persistence.
Biodata: best predictor of future behavior is past behavior Biographical Information Blank: a empirically derived form. that contained multiple choice questions that assess history , family history health and attitudes - lacks face validity - applicants may think it is an invasion of privacy
interviews: lack reliability and validity- can be improved when interviewer is trained to observe interpersonal skills, structured interview is used, or in combination with another predictor (GMA). Behavior descriptions interviews focus on an actual situation in the past instead of a hypothetical situation. multiple interviews thought single interviewer with a structured interview is better
Work Job Samples: intdividual must perform the task similar to or identical to that on the job- mechanical in addition already skilled workers, this can also predict trainability for newly skilled or untrained workers. - in this situation, workers will be included in structured learning and evaluation. --trainable tests. -Also, work sample use a realistic job preview_ video or written job description which reduces unrealistic expectations of the job- increase commitment and satisfaction and lower turnover rates.
Assessment centers


What is social affiliation?

Social facilitation occurs when performance on a task is improved as the result of the presence of other people.


According to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, employee's are likely to accept goals assigned to them when?

And that ____ goals produce higher levels of ? and this is strongest for ______ tasks.

Goals setting and feedback are superior to improving ____ then either goal setting or feedback alone.

Employees are likely to accept goals assigned to them when they consciously accept and then are committed to those goals.

Moderate goals produce higher levels of productivity and this is strongest for simple tasks. The less complex the task, the stronger the link between goal difficulty and productivity .


Commitment: goal performance is strongest when people are committed, and even more so when said goals are difficult. Given the commitment to a goal, if an individual discovers their performance is below that which is required, they are likely to increase their effort or change their strategy in order to attain it. When we are less committed to goals – particularly more challenging goals – we increase the likelihood of giving up.
Clarity: Specific goals put you on a direct course. When a goal is vague, it has limited motivational value. Goal clarity was positively related to overall motivation and satisfaction in the workplace. Set clear, precise and unambiguous goals that are implicit and can be measured. When a goal is clear in your mind, you have an improved understanding of the task at hand.
-Goals must be challenging yet attainable. Challenging goals can improve performance through increased self-satisfaction, and the motivation to find suitable strategies to push our skills to the limit. Conversely, goals that are not within our ability level will not be achieved, leading to feelings of dissatisfaction and frustration. We are motivated by achievement and the anticipation of achievement. If we know a goal is challenging yet believe it is within our abilities to accomplish, we are more likely to be motivated to complete a task.
Taks complexity: Overly complex tasks introduce demands that may mute goal-setting effects. Overly complex goals that lie out of our skill level may become overwhelming and negatively impact morale, productivity, and motivation. The timescale for such goals should be realistic. Allowing sufficient time to work toward a goal allows opportunities to reassess the goal complexity, whilst reviewing and improving performance. Even the most motivated of people can become disillusioned if the task’s complexity is too great for their skills.
Goal setting is more effective in the presence of immediate feedback


Of Mc Clellenad's needs theory, Need for Achievement nACH was studied the most. Research found that? choose what types of tasks and why? They prefer frequent concrete feedback and view money as what?
Also, they prefer personal responsibility and recognition which makes them good____ and not _____? Cross cultural studies show that nACH is related to economic growth

People high on nACH prefer moderate difficulty and risk because success on these tasks depends more on effort than uncontrollable factors.
require frequent concrete feedback and money is viewed as a source of feedback.
They make good salespeople and entrepreneurs but poor managers.


What are the Motivation Theories?

-Maslow's Needs Theory (motivation is the result of 5 basic needs)
-ERG Theory: reduced Maslow's theory to existence, relatedness, and growth- people are motivated by more than one need at a time.
McCelland's Need Theory: three needs act as motivators- Need for achievement (goal and task), Need for power (to control or influence others), need for affiliation (need to est. warmth and close relationships.
Herzberg's two factor theory which looks at motivation and satisfaction: separates satisfaction and dissatisfaction_ lower level needs (hygiene: context/pay): dissatisfaction when unfulfilled little effect on satisfaction/motivation: High-level (motivators: responsibility): increase job satisfaction and motivation no dissatisfaction when unfilled
-Goal Setting Theory: motivated to achieve own personal goals
-Equity Theory: social comparison on motivation: input and output ratio
-Expectancy (VIE) Theory: motivation is a pultiplicative function of expectancy (high effort= successful performance) Instrumentality (good performance leads to reward) positive valence (rewards have value)
-Social Cognitive Theory: : self regulation of behavior- goal setting, self observation (monitor goals behavior), self eval, self reaction

-Fielder's contingency theory: effectiveness is based off of leadership style (LPC) and favorableness (influence and power a leader has) of the situation
-Cognitive Resource Theory's stress and cognitive resources
- Path Goal Theory (House's): effective leader can help a subordinate find a path that leads to their goals.
-Hersey and Blanchard: situational leadership model ( telling, selling, participative, delegating)
-Vroom-Yetton-Jargo Normative (DECISION) making model-11 situation factors and 5 decision strategies ( A1 Autocratic; make decisions alone, (AII) considers input from employees. (CI (consult) explains problem individually and makes decision: CII explains as a group, but make decision: G, Group- explains to group and group decides.
Transformational leaders and transactional leaders


According to Fiedler's contingency model the most effective leader is determined by what?

Fiedler's contingency model distinguishes between two types of leaders - high-LPC and low-LPC. High LPC leaders are person-oriented and are concerned primarily with maintaining good interpersonal relationships, while low LPC leaders are task-oriented and are most concerned about successful task performance.
Fiedler's contingency model predicts that task-oriented (low-LPC) leaders are most effective when the situation is extreme - that is, when the leader has either low or high situational control, while person-oriented (high-LPC leaders) are most effective when situational control is moderate. As defined by Fiedler, situational control is determined by three factors: leader-member relations, task-structure, and leader position power