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Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (21)
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What is the gain loss theory?

Self verification theory?

Social exchange?

Balance Theory

Gain-loss theory predicts that we tend to like others whose initial negative feelings toward us change to positive feeling more than those who are consistently positive and, conversely, that we tend to dislike others whose initially positive feelings toward us change to negative feelings more than those who have negative feelings toward us from the beginning.

Self-verification theory predicts that people prefer others who provide them with accurate information about themselves (i.e., with information that is consistent with their self-evaluations).

Social exchange theory focuses on the rewards and costs of a relationship and predicts that we are more likely to remain in a relationship when the rewards exceed the costs of doing so.

Balance theory uses the concept of cognitive consistency to explain attitude change and focuses on the relationships between three entities - the person, another person, and a third person or an idea, event, or object. cognitive consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance. The consistency motive is the urge to maintain one's values and beliefs over time. Balance theory describes the structure of people’s opinions about other individuals and objects as well as the perceived relation between them. The central notion of balance theory is that certain structures between individuals and objects are balanced, whereas other structures are imbalanced, and that balanced structures are generally preferred over imbalanced structures. Specifically, balance theory claims that unbalanced structures are associated with an uncomfortable feeling of negative affect, and that this negative feeling leads people to strive for balanced structures and to avoid imbalanced structures. An example for a balanced structure is when your best friend also likes your favorite rock band; an example for an imbalanced structure is when your best friend dislikes your favorite rock band. According to balance theory, the first case makes you feel good, whereas the second case creates an uncomfortable tension.
Balance theory is a cognitive consistency theory that predicts that a person is motivated to change an attitude when he/she experiences inconsistencies in attitudes. Balance theory is also known as P-O-X theory, where p is the person, O is another person, and X is the attitude object.


Research on the "jig saw classroom" and Serif's Robber's Cave study found what?

Zimbardo's deindividuation

In a jigsaw classroom, students work together in teams in order to complete an assignment. The research has found that the jigsaw classroom helps reduce intergroup hostility related to racial, ethnic, or cultural differences. Sherif found that cooperation in achieving a superordinate goal reduced hostility between groups of boys.

Zimbardo: This study found that people are more willing to act in antisocial ways when their identities are unknown.


The tendency to continue adhering to a belief even when the belief has been discredited is referred to as?

Belief perseverance


the tendency to make attributions about oneself that maintain one's self-esteem - e.g., to attribute positive outcomes to dispositional factors but negative outcomes to situational factors is referred to as?

Self serving bias


the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions.

Functional Fixedness


What is privilege?

Hay's developed the acronym______ to understand the relationship between cultural influences and hold the privilege/dominant group.
What does each letter represent?
What is ethnocentric monoculturalism?

Privilege is an aspect of the American Power System that occurs when a Right or Benefit belongs to one group. Ex. only heterosexuals where allowed to marry

Cultural influences privileged

Age and general influents-----30 to 60
Developmental or acquired
Disability ----------------------no disability
Religion -----------------------Secular Christian
Ethnicity -----------------------Euro American
Socioeconomic ----------Middle/upper class
Sexual orientation -----------Heterosexual
Indigenous heritage-----Non indigenous
National Origin -----------Live in this country
Gender ----------------------Male

Those without privilege experience prejudice daily

-ethnocentric monoculturalism: the belief in the superiority and inferiority of others, power to impose standards, that truth and reality are the same experience for everyone.


What is the he tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event happening based on the instances that come quickly or easily to mind referred to as?

availability bias


The likelihood that a person will be persuaded by an argument that is the opposite of his/her position is maximized when the position advocated by the argument is within the person's latitude of ________. The size of the latitude of acceptance is affected by several factors one being the ____ .

Acceptance (they accept the argument persuasion)

--ego-involvement with the issue addressed by the argument


According to the theory, an audience will make a ______________ between the communicator of a position and their own attitude on the issue.

People have categories of judgement with which they evaluate incoming information. When making a judgement the individual has a range of possible positions in which to respond (continuum) absolutely not to most certainly." What are these ranges referred to as?

The sizes of a person's latitude is determined by the level of personal involvement or ___________> People may or may not have opinions regarding the communicated info. and this is affect whether or not the persuasive message is accepted or not. The higher the level of _________ the __________ the latitude of ______________

social judgement

self persuasion theory

--Social Judgment Theory Sherif- According to this theory, an individual weighs every new idea, comparing it with the individual's present point of view to determine where it should be placed on the attitude scale in an individual's mind. SJT is the subconscious sorting out of ideas that occurs at the instant of perception.
-These ranges are referred to as the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, and the latitude of noncommittment, respectively. An individual’s most preferred position, located within the latitude of acceptance, is referred to as the anchor.- ether accept the persuasion or reject the persuasion

-ego involvement

-higher the ego, the larger the latitude of rejection (ex. donating or not to cancer research after your mother died from cancer)


_________ refers to the tendency to remember a message but, over time, to forget the source of the message. One outcome of this is that people may eventually adopt an attitude or belief that was originally communicated to them by an low-credible source because they have forgotten the source

The sleeper effect:


Research suggests that listeners are better able to resist a persuasive message if they have been what about its content.

forewarned or have prior knowledge


What is the Field Theory?

What are the behavioral consequences of unresolved tension in the field and proposes that memory tends to be better for uncompleted tasks then for completed because uncompleted tasks create the greatest psychic tension?

-Approach-approach Conflict
-avoidance-avoidance Conflict
-approach-avoidance-- when moving towards a goal, the avoidance force becomes stronger. move away then the approach becomes stronger
-Double approach-avoidance_ most difficult to resolve

-Zeigarnik Effect


French and Raven identifies five different types of power that leaders can use to influence subordinates:

referent: admire
expert: reflects someone who has expertise in a particular area or special knowledge.
legitimate: legitimate authority
reward: power makes use of incentives like vacations, raises, promotions, and so on.
coercive.: punishes employee by coercive means like threats.
Informational: has specific information that is needed by the group



According to Kinder and Sears, ___________ racism is characterized by a combination of negative affect toward minorities and the belief that minorities violate traditional American values such as individualism, self-reliance, and the work ethic.

symbolic racism has largely replaced overt (old-fashioned) racism.


According to the Elaboration Likelihood model, whether a person uses the central route (carefully considers an argument and where the extent of attitude change depends on What?
or peripheral route which relies on heuristic criteria and the extent of the attitude depends on ________, __, and __________.
Thus, several factors including the nature of the ______ and ______. With regard mood, a person is more likely to rely on the peripheral route when he/she is in a ________ mood and a central when in a _______

quality of the argument

- quantity vs quality, presence of persuasion cue (attractiveness) and status of the communicator.

nature of the message and the person's mood

positive peripheral


Why do people believe in horoscopes?

The false consensus bias is the tendency to ?

The Zeigarnik effect is?

Illusory correlation is?

Researchers have found that individuals are often willing to agree that vague descriptions of them - such as those presented in horoscopes - accurately describe their personal characteristics.

The Barnum effect (also known as the Forer effect) predicts that people tend to accept vague or general descriptions of themselves as accurate. The Barnum effect has been attributed to a number of factors including gullibility, wishful thinking, and a confirmation bias.

The false consensus bias is the tendency to overestimate the degree to which others agree with you.

The Zeigarnik effect is the tendency to remember interrupted or uncompleted tasks better than completed ones.

Illusory correlation is the belief that there is a relationship between events when there actually isn't one.


The representativeness heuristic involves judging?

The availability heuristic involves judging?

The simulation heuristic involves judging?

The anchoring and adjustment heuristic involves judging

The representativeness heuristic involves judging the likelihood or frequency of an event based on the extent to which it resembles the "typical" case. judgments on resemblances and similarities.

The availability heuristic involves judging the likelihood or frequency of an event based on how easy it is to retrieve information relevant to the event from long-term memory.

The simulation heuristic involves judging the likelihood or frequency of an event based on how easy it is to mentally simulate (imagine) the event.

The anchoring and adjustment heuristic involves judging the likelihood or frequency of an event by using an anchoring (starting) point and making adjustments up or down from that point.


In one study on this phenomenon, participants were given data about the distribution of GPA in the population and then asked to estimate the GPA of hypothetical students. Rather than relying on the statistical information, participants usually used irrelevant descriptive information about each hypothetical student to estimate the student's GPA. what is the name of this phenomenon?

What is the phenomenon that explains a person's tendency to remember very unusual or unique objects or events (i.e., objects or events that "stick out like a sore thumb").

the base rate fallacy, which is also known as base rate neglect. In one study on this phenomenon, participants were given data about the distribution of GPA in the population and then asked to estimate the GPA of hypothetical students. Rather than relying on the statistical information, participants usually used irrelevant descriptive information about each hypothetical student to estimate the student's GPA.

The Von Restorff effect is the tendency to remember very unusual or unique objects or events (i.e., objects or events that "stick out like a sore thumb").


he approach-avoidance conflict is an intraindividual conflict that occurs when a goal or alternative has both positive and negative qualities.
As distance from the goal decreases, the strength of both the "approach gradient" and the "avoidance gradient." However, the strength of the avoidance gradient _________, meaning?


increases more rapidly

that, as you get closer to the goal, the more likely that you will choose to avoid it.


For Miller and Dollard (1941), the approach-approach conflict:

According to Miller and Dollard, the approach-approach conflict is not really a dilemma. When it does arouse conflict, it is because there are hidden or latent avoidance conditions operating.


Zimbardo's (1972) prison study confirmed that:

uncharacteristic behaviors can be situationally elicited.

Zimbardo found that a person's behavior was affected by his assigned role and the demands of the situation.
In his prison study, students assigned the role of guard quickly began acting authoritarian, while those assigned the role of prisoner took on passive, helpless behaviors.