Flashcards in Stretching Deck (24):
What is functional ROM?
The ability of structures or segments of the body to move or be moved to allow the presence of ROM for functional activities
What is functional mobility?
The ability to of an individual to initiate, control or sustain active movements of the boy to perform simple to complex motor skills
What is Flexibility of Extensibility?
The ability to move a single joint or series of joints
What is hypomobility?
Decreased mobility or restricted motion caused by adaptive shortening of soft tissues
What is hypermobility?
Stretch of a joint or surrounding soft tissues well beyond the normal length of muscle and ROM
What is a contracture?
Adaptive shortening of the muscle-tendon unit and other soft tissues that cross or surround a joint that results in significant resistance to stretch, limits ROM, and may compromise functional abilities
6 Types of Contractures
Arthrogenic and periarticular contractures
Adhesions/Scar tissue adhesions
What is the primary source of muscle’s resistance to elongation or stretch?
The connective tissue framework of muscle
What are the two sensory organs of muscle-tendon units?
Muscle spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)
What is the muscle spindle?
The major sensory organ of muscle and is sensitive to quick and sustained stretch
What is the main function of muscle spindles?
To receive and convey information about changes in the length of a muscle and the velocity of the length changes
Muscle spindle fibers transmit info via what?
type Ia and type II afferent fibers
Two ways to stimulate the muscle spindle fibers
- Gamma efferent neural pathways
What is the GTO?
The Golgi tendon organ is a sensory organ located near the musculotendinous junctions of extrafusal muscle fibers.
What is the main function of the GTO?
Monitor tension in muscle from passive stretch or and active muscle contraction
It is a protective mechanism that inhibits tension
GTO fibers transmit info via what?
Type II B fibers
_________ stretch reflex occurs when a muscle is stretched quickly
Connective tissue is composed of what three types of fibers
1) Collagen fibers
2) Elastin fibers
3) Reticulin fibers
How are tendon collagen fibers arranged?
parallel and resist the greatest tensile forces
How are skin collagen fibers arranged?
random and weakest in resisting tension
6 Essential Elements of a Stretching Program
1) Alignment and stabilization
2) Intensity of stretch
3) Duration of stretch
4) Speed of stretch
5) Frequency of stretch
6) Mode of stretch
___ load and ___ intensity stretch usually results in optimal rates of improved ROM
How long should you hold a stretch?
At least 30 seconds