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624: Acute Care Therapeutic Exercises > Principles of Aerobic Exercise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of Aerobic Exercise Deck (49):
1

The ability to perform physical work is defined as what?

fitness

2

Measure of the body’s capacity to use O2 is called what?

VO2Max

3

How is VO2Max measured?

mL of O2/kg per minute

4

The ability to work for prolonged periods of time and resist fatigue is called what?

endurance

5

What is Aerobic Exercise Training (Conditioning)?

Augmentation of the energy utilization of the muscle due to an exercise program

6

What is Adaptation?

CV system and muscles adapt to training stimulus over time

7

Measure of oxygen used by the myocardial muscle is called what?

mVO2 (myocardial oxygen consumption)

8

What are the 3 major energy systems?

1) ATP-PC
2) Anaerobic Glycolytic
3) Aerobic System

9

What is the fuel source in the ATP-PC System?
Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
Aerobic System?

PC
Glycogen
Glycogen, Proteins, and Fats

10

What is the energy duration during the ATP-PC System?
Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
Aerobic System?

Short, quick bursts
Moderate intensity/short duration
Long duration

11

Compare and contrast maximum capacity and maximum power between the 3 energy systems

Aerobic system has great maximum capacity and low maximum power whereas ATP-PC system has great maximum power and low maximum capacity. Anaerobic glycolytic system has moderate levels of each

12

In which energy system is oxygen required?

Aerobic system

13

ATP-PC system is used for the first __ seconds of exercise.
Anaerobic Glycolytic system is used from the __ - __ second of exercise.
Aerobic System is used after the __ minute of exercise

30
30-90
2

14

What happens to ATP in each system?

ATP-PC: it is replenished in the muscle cell with rest
Anaerobic Glycolytic: it is resynthesized in the cell
Aerobic System: it is resynthesized in the mitochondria of the muscle cell

15

In which system is lactic acid produced?

Anaerobic Glycolytic

16

Which energy system is used during a submaximal intense activity using large muscles for 3-5 minutes and repeated after rest?

All 3 systems

17

Describe Type I muscle fibers

Slow twitch fibers that are rich in myoglobin and mitochondria. Used during low-intensity exercises demanding endurance

18

Describe Type IIB muscle fibers

Fast twitch fibers that are low in myoglobin and have few mitochondria. Used during activities requiring power

19

Describe Type IIA muscle fibers

Have characteristics of both slow and fast twitch fibers

20

What are METs?

measurement used to quantify how much energy is expended based on the amount of oxygen consumed (mL) per kilogram of body weight

21

The higher the net oxygen cost, the ____ the efficiency in performing the activity.

lower

22

3 Cardiac Responses to Exercise

1) Exercise Pressor Response
2) Cardiac Effects
3) Peripheral Effects

23

Describe the exercise pressor response to exercise

It is an SNS response that includes generalized peripheral vasoconstriction and increased myocardial contractility

24

Describe cardiac effects to exercise

There is an increase in heart rate and force of contractility

25

Describe peripheral effects to exercise

3 Things Occur:
- net reduction in total peripheral resistance due to vasoconstriction
- cardiac output increases due to an increase in myocardial contractility
- systolic BP increases due to increased cardiac output

26

What are the respiratory responses to exercise? (even before exercise begins)

- Gas exchange increases
- Increase in body temperature
- Increased epinephrine
- Increased stimulation of receptors of joints or muscles

27

3 responses to exercise that provide additional oxygen to muscle?

- Increased blood flow
- Increased oxygen extraction
- Oxygen Consumption

28

What does one test when testing level of performance?

submaximum or maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) or symptom limited oxygen uptake

29

What are the 4 P's of stress testing for recovering subjects?

Principles
Purpose
Preparation
Precautions

30

What are the four determinants of an exercise program?

(IDFM)
Intensity
Duration
Frequency
Mode

31

__% max heart rate is a minimal level stimulus for eliciting a conditioning response in healthy young individuals

70%

32

What are the two ways to calculate max HR?

220-Age (less accurate)
OR
HRrest + 60-70% (HRmax-HRrest)

33

What is the specificity principle?

Adaptation of the systems depending on the demand
There is no overlap when training strength/power and endurance activities

34

If you want to improve your VO2max what type of activity should you perform?

High intensity exercise for shorter time

35

When does detraining begin?

After only 2 weeks

*3 days in bedbound pts

36

3 Components of an Exercise Program

1) Warm-Up
2) Aerobic Exercise
3) Cool-Down

37

Purpose of a Warm-Up

Allows for physiologic responses to adjust to pending demand increase and injury prevention

38

2 Guidelines of a Warm-Up

- 10 minute period of total body movement exercises
- Attain a HR that’s within 20 beats/min of target HR

39

4 Types of Aerobic Exercise

1) Continuous
2) Interval
3) Circuit
4) Circuit-Interval

40

Purpose of a Cool-Down

Prevent blood pooling and fainting

41

2 Guidelines of a Cool-Down

- Total body exercises/static stretching
- Period should last 5-10 minutes

42

3 Phases of an Exercise Program for a pt with coronary artery disease

Phase I (Inpatient)
Phase II (Outpatient)
Phase III (Outpatient)

43

Purpose of Phase I

Self care, education, orthostatic challenge such as transfers, ambulation

44

What things occur during Phase II

- Patients undergo symptom limited exercise stress test
- They are monitored via telemetry to determine HR and rhythm responses
- Circuit-Interval Training is common (3xwk)

45

When does Phase II begin?

either upon D/C from the hospital or 6-8 weeks post cardiac event

46

Typically how long is Phase II?

6-8 weeks

47

Describe Phase III

OP phase that includes a supervised exercise conditioning program to continue improvement or maintenance of fitness levels in which HR and rhythm are no longer monitored

48

Myocardial oxygen consumption is ____ with arm exercises than with leg exercises

Higher

49

Generally what happens to physical work capacity and endurance as one ages?

Decreases