Flashcards in Principles of Aerobic Exercise Deck (49):
The ability to perform physical work is defined as what?
Measure of the body’s capacity to use O2 is called what?
How is VO2Max measured?
mL of O2/kg per minute
The ability to work for prolonged periods of time and resist fatigue is called what?
What is Aerobic Exercise Training (Conditioning)?
Augmentation of the energy utilization of the muscle due to an exercise program
What is Adaptation?
CV system and muscles adapt to training stimulus over time
Measure of oxygen used by the myocardial muscle is called what?
mVO2 (myocardial oxygen consumption)
What are the 3 major energy systems?
2) Anaerobic Glycolytic
3) Aerobic System
What is the fuel source in the ATP-PC System?
Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
Glycogen, Proteins, and Fats
What is the energy duration during the ATP-PC System?
Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
Short, quick bursts
Moderate intensity/short duration
Compare and contrast maximum capacity and maximum power between the 3 energy systems
Aerobic system has great maximum capacity and low maximum power whereas ATP-PC system has great maximum power and low maximum capacity. Anaerobic glycolytic system has moderate levels of each
In which energy system is oxygen required?
ATP-PC system is used for the first __ seconds of exercise.
Anaerobic Glycolytic system is used from the __ - __ second of exercise.
Aerobic System is used after the __ minute of exercise
What happens to ATP in each system?
ATP-PC: it is replenished in the muscle cell with rest
Anaerobic Glycolytic: it is resynthesized in the cell
Aerobic System: it is resynthesized in the mitochondria of the muscle cell
In which system is lactic acid produced?
Which energy system is used during a submaximal intense activity using large muscles for 3-5 minutes and repeated after rest?
All 3 systems
Describe Type I muscle fibers
Slow twitch fibers that are rich in myoglobin and mitochondria. Used during low-intensity exercises demanding endurance
Describe Type IIB muscle fibers
Fast twitch fibers that are low in myoglobin and have few mitochondria. Used during activities requiring power
Describe Type IIA muscle fibers
Have characteristics of both slow and fast twitch fibers
What are METs?
measurement used to quantify how much energy is expended based on the amount of oxygen consumed (mL) per kilogram of body weight
The higher the net oxygen cost, the ____ the efficiency in performing the activity.
3 Cardiac Responses to Exercise
1) Exercise Pressor Response
2) Cardiac Effects
3) Peripheral Effects
Describe the exercise pressor response to exercise
It is an SNS response that includes generalized peripheral vasoconstriction and increased myocardial contractility
Describe cardiac effects to exercise
There is an increase in heart rate and force of contractility
Describe peripheral effects to exercise
3 Things Occur:
- net reduction in total peripheral resistance due to vasoconstriction
- cardiac output increases due to an increase in myocardial contractility
- systolic BP increases due to increased cardiac output
What are the respiratory responses to exercise? (even before exercise begins)
- Gas exchange increases
- Increase in body temperature
- Increased epinephrine
- Increased stimulation of receptors of joints or muscles
3 responses to exercise that provide additional oxygen to muscle?
- Increased blood flow
- Increased oxygen extraction
- Oxygen Consumption
What does one test when testing level of performance?
submaximum or maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) or symptom limited oxygen uptake
What are the 4 P's of stress testing for recovering subjects?
What are the four determinants of an exercise program?
__% max heart rate is a minimal level stimulus for eliciting a conditioning response in healthy young individuals
What are the two ways to calculate max HR?
220-Age (less accurate)
HRrest + 60-70% (HRmax-HRrest)
What is the specificity principle?
Adaptation of the systems depending on the demand
There is no overlap when training strength/power and endurance activities
If you want to improve your VO2max what type of activity should you perform?
High intensity exercise for shorter time
When does detraining begin?
After only 2 weeks
*3 days in bedbound pts
3 Components of an Exercise Program
2) Aerobic Exercise
Purpose of a Warm-Up
Allows for physiologic responses to adjust to pending demand increase and injury prevention
2 Guidelines of a Warm-Up
- 10 minute period of total body movement exercises
- Attain a HR that’s within 20 beats/min of target HR
4 Types of Aerobic Exercise
Purpose of a Cool-Down
Prevent blood pooling and fainting
2 Guidelines of a Cool-Down
- Total body exercises/static stretching
- Period should last 5-10 minutes
3 Phases of an Exercise Program for a pt with coronary artery disease
Phase I (Inpatient)
Phase II (Outpatient)
Phase III (Outpatient)
Purpose of Phase I
Self care, education, orthostatic challenge such as transfers, ambulation
What things occur during Phase II
- Patients undergo symptom limited exercise stress test
- They are monitored via telemetry to determine HR and rhythm responses
- Circuit-Interval Training is common (3xwk)
When does Phase II begin?
either upon D/C from the hospital or 6-8 weeks post cardiac event
Typically how long is Phase II?
Describe Phase III
OP phase that includes a supervised exercise conditioning program to continue improvement or maintenance of fitness levels in which HR and rhythm are no longer monitored
Myocardial oxygen consumption is ____ with arm exercises than with leg exercises