Structure of the neck and cervical spine Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Anatomy > Structure of the neck and cervical spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure of the neck and cervical spine Deck (46)
1

What are the boundaries of the neck

base of skull and inferior border of the mandible

top of sternum, clavicle and acromonium and c7 vertebrae

2

what are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck

inferior border of the mandible, anterior edge of SCM, midline of neck

3

what are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck

posterior egde of SCM, middle 3rd of clavicle, anterior edge of trapezius

4

what are the 5 compartments of the neck

visceral
2x vascular compartment
vertebral compartment
musculofascial collar

5

what are the functions of fascia

containment and rigid support for muscles and viscera

slipperiness for structures to slide over each other

condiut for passage of nerves and other vessels

6

what are the layers of superficial fascia in the neck

subcutaneous tissue and platysma

continuous with superficial fascia of the thorax
connects to mandible and facial muscles
cutaneous nerves, lymph nodes etc present

7

what muscles does the investing fascia surround

SCM, trapezius, infrahyoid

also parotid and submandibular glands

8

what structures pierce the deep fascia

ext and ant jugular vein
several nerves including cervical plexus

9

what are the posterior attachments of investing fascia

ligamentum nuchae & C7 spinous process, surrounds trapezius

10

what are the anterior attachments of investing fascia

surrounds infrahyoid and SCM, hyoid bone

11

what are the superior attachments of investing fascia

ext occ.protuberance & sup nuchal line

12

what are the inferior attachments of investing fascia

spine of scapula, acromion, clavicle, manubrium (see suprasternal space)

13

what are the lateral attachments of investing fascia

mastoid process & zygomatic arch

14

what are the components of fascia in the visceral column

anteriorly: pretracheal
posteriorly: buccopharyngeal
laterally: fuses with the carotid sheath as alar fascia

15

where does alar fascia end

c7

16

what are the boundaries of the buccopharyngeal fascia

base of skull to thoracic cavity

17

what are the boundaries of pretracheal fascia

extends from hyoid bone to upper thoracic cavity
blends with fibrous pericardium and aortic arch

18

what gland is found in the visceral column

thyroid

19

what is found in the vertebral compartement

vertebral column, pre and post vertebral muscles

(scalenes, longus, colli, longus capitus, deep cervical muscles)

20

what fascia does prevertebral fascia blend with

endothoracic fascia
inferior and anterior longitudinal ligament at T3/4

21

what forms the axillay sheath

prevertebral fascia extends laterally over the first rib to surround axillary vessels and brachial plexus

22

where does the prevertebral fascia extend posteriorly

along superior nuchal line to ext. occipital protuberance

23

where does the prevertebral fascia extend anteriorly

to basilar part of occipital bone, area of jugular foramen and carotid canal

24

where does the prevertebral fascia extend laterally

mastoid process

25

what ligament does prevertebral fascia attach to

ligementum nuchae

26

what structures are found in the carotid sheath

common carotid
internal carotid
part of external carotid
internal jugular vein
cranial nerve 10
some cervical lymph nodes

27

where is the carotid sheath

runs from foramen of carotid canal to aortic arch

receives contributions from other layers of deep fascia due to its juxtaposition

28

where is the pretracheal space

between the investing layer and pretracheal fascia

extends between neck and superior mediastinum

29

where is the retropharyngeal space

between buccopharyngeal fascia and prevertebral fascia
extends from base of skull to bifurcation of the trachea

30

where is the third fascial space in the prevertebral layer

covers anterior surface of transverse process and bodies of cervical vertebrae, contains loose CT
area extends from base of skull through posterior mediastinum to diaphragm

31

what is the hyoid bone connected to

mandible, styloid process, thyroid cartilage, manubrium, scapulae

32

what ligament is attached to the lesser horn of the hyoid bone

stylohyoid ligament

33

what does the ligamentum nuchae attach to

ext occipital protuberance, foramen magnum, spinous process of cervical vertebrae. continuous the supraspinous ligament

34

what is the function of ligamentum nuchae

supports head and resists flexion, attachment point for muscles

35

at what level is the vertebral prominens

c7

36

what are the features of cervical vertebrae

bifid spinous processes (c2-6)

foramen transversarium

37

what level is the atlas bone

c1

38

what vertebra is the axis

c2

39

what are the features of the atlas

no body
spinous process is a tubercle
facets articulate with occipital condyles of skull/ dens

40

what movements does the atlanto occipital joint allow

flexion and extension (condyloid joint)

41

what movements does the lateral atlanto axial joint allow

rotation of head
assisted by transverse ligament of atlas holding the dens in position

42

what is the function of the alar ligaments

prevent excessive rotation of the head and neck, connect dens to occipital condyles

43

between which two vertebrae is there no intervertebral disc

c1 and 2

44

what structures can be damaged in a whiplash injury

anterior longitudinal ligament

vertebrae may become fractured or dislocated

45

what level is the bifurcation of the common carotid artery

c3/4

also top of thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone

46

what level is the lower border of the pharynx and larynx

c6

also upper border of trachea and oesophagus