2. development of the nervous system Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Anatomy > 2. development of the nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. development of the nervous system Deck (26)
1

what causes anencephaly

failure of closure of the neural tube at the rostral neuropore

2

what are the risk factors for a neural tube disorder

epilepsy drugs, previous NTD, diabetes, insufficient folate

3

name the types of spina bifida

spina bifida occulta
meningocele
menigomyelocele
myeloschisis (spinal cord is open)

4

what substance is a marker for NTDs

alpha feto protein

5

what is spina bifida commonly associated with

hydrocephalus
displaced cerrebellum

6

what does the forebrain develop from

prosencephalon

7

what does the midbrain develop from

Mesencephalon

8

what does the hindbrain (cerebellum and brainstem) develop from

Rhombencephalon

9

describe the development of the forebrain

Grows two lateral expansions
connected to a central slit like space

10

describe the development of the midbrain

Grows slower than the forebrain
remains as single central tube

11

describe the development of the hindbrain

Develops into (rest of the) brain stem
and cerebellum with a central ventricle
expanding

12

what disorders can arise from defective neural crest development (autosomal dominant)

Waardenburg
pigment abnormalities
deafness
heterochromia
telecanthus
Pax-3 deletion

Treacher Collins
TCOF1 gene (treacle)
abnormal eye shape
hearing loss
zygoma
malformed ears

13

what structures do neural crest cells go on to form

skull
sensory and autonomic NS
pigment cells

ganglia
adrenal medulla
melanocytes
connective tissue
neurones and glia
etc

14

what are neural crest cells

originally found in the neural plate

during neuralation they leave the neural plate when it becomes a tube
and lie on either side of the tube

neural crest cells then move to the mesoderm

15

what is the function of the notochord

induces the neural plate by producing chemicals Noggin,
chordin,
follistatin

16

what is the structure found in the middle of the developing spinal cord

sulcus limitans

17

what structure is the 4th ventricle opposite

pons

18

what does the cerebellum develop from

dorsal wall of neural tube

19

what are two components of the hindbrain/ rhombencephalon

metencephalon (pons and cerebellum)

myelencephalon (medulla)

20

what structure splits up the basal ganglia into the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus

internal capsule

21

what structures make up the lentiform nucleus

putamen and globus pallidus

22

where is the fornix

below the corpus callosum

23

what is the function of the fornix

connects the hippocampus to anterior structures

24

what structures are related to the third ventricle

diencephalon and thalamus

25

from what day is a midline groove apparent

19

26

when do the neuropores close

rostral: 23

caudal: 27