tongue, thyroid and face Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Anatomy > tongue, thyroid and face > Flashcards

Flashcards in tongue, thyroid and face Deck (30)
1

what are pharyngeal arches

protrusions of mesenchyme at head end separated by pharyngeal clefts

become visible at -5 weeks

2

what is a rhombomere

a divided segment of the developing neural tube within the hindbrain region in the area that eventually becomes the rhombencephalon

3

what is the role of neural crest cells in developing pharyngeal arches

neural crest migration from the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombomeres of the hindbrain

• Transcription factors determine expression patterns into the pharyngeal arches
under control of endodermal signals
• Crest cells give rise to neurons supplying pharyngeal arches and
guide axons toward the CNS
• Arch mesoderm structures are derived from neural crest, lateral plate and paraxial mesoderm

4

what is the first arch nerve

trigeminal, three divisions

5

what is the 2nd arch nerve

facial

6

what is the third arch nerve

glossopharyngeal

7

what is the 4th and 6th arch nerve

vagus
4- superior laryngeal
6- recurrent laryngeal

8

what does the cartilage of the 1st arch become

mandible and middle ear, malleus and incus (neural crest)

9

what does the cartilage of the 2nd arch become

lesser horn of hyoid, styloid ligament and styloid, stapes

neural crest

10

what does the cartilage of the 3rd arch become

greater horn of hyoid

(neural crest)

11

what does the cartilage of the 4th and 6th arch become

thyroid and cricoid

(lateral plate mesoderm)

12

what is the terminal sulcus made from

junction between 1st and 3rd arch mesenchyme

13

what part of the tongue is made from the 1st arch

body

14

what is the sensation supply of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

trigeminal (first arch)

15

what is the sensation supply of the posterior third of the tongue

glossopharyngeal (3rd arch)

16

what is the innervation of the epiglottis

4th arch- vagus, superior laryngeal

17

what is the taste supply of the tongue

facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus

18

what is the solitary nucleus

a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embeddedd in the medulla oblongata.

functions: taste, sensory from the ear, carotid and aortic body,

general visceral afferent pathway via vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves

19

where does the thyroid originate

foramen caecum, caudal to the tuberculum impar

20

where does the thyroid migrate to by week 7

anterior to hyoid and thyroid cartilages

21

what is the thyroglossal duct

connects thyroid with tongue

22

what can cause thyroid dysgenesis

mutations in transcription factors PAX8 and TITF1

23

what do follicular cells in the thyroid secrete

triiodothyronine and thyroxine

24

what do parafollicular cells produce

calcitonin

derived from the fourth pouch

25

what is a thyroglossal cyst

remnant of thyroglossal duct
moves upwards on tongue protrusion
usually associated with the hyoid bone

26

what is the stomodeum

a depression between the brain and pericardium in an embryo and is the precursor of the mouth and pituritary gland

27

what structures are formed by the intermaxillary segment

philtrum, incisors, primary palate

28

what does the palatine shelf form from

maxillary process

29

what factors increase the likelihood of cleft lip/palate

Environmental
• Maternal age
• Medications antiepileptic agents or corticosteroids,
• Smoking
• Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
• Maternal illness was suggested to elevate the chance of CL/P
• Maternal diabetes
• Lack of dietary folic acid
Genetic
• Aberrant gene variants are inherited from mother or father
• Inheritance is variable, often not strictly Mendelian probably because of environmental factors

may be syndromic- treacher collins/ van de woude

30

what are the effects of CL/CP

difficulty feeding, hearing and ear problems, speech problems, dental abnormalities, social and psychological