Studies- Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Studies- Exam 1 Deck (25):

"Red dot" test

Sense of self (Children develop ability around 2 yo)
Apes raised with others pass the test, but those raise in isolation do not


"Yellow snow" test

Sense of self (Children develop ability around 2 yo)
Dogs pass


Redemptive narratives (Dunlop & Tracy, 2013)

Important process and part of being human
-Helps to stay sober


Power saw study (Nibett & Wilson, 1977)

Watch movie, half participants had power saw interruption
DV- how much like movie and why

Both groups liked movie EQUALLY!
Interrupted group thought they would have liked it more


Mood diary study (Wilson, Laser & Stone, 1982)

Wrote daily moods and factors the could have effected them (sleep, weather, etc.)

Indicated how much these factors affected them (they were WRONG)


Pen study

Cultural influences
-those of western culture more likely to take unique pen
-eastern culture more likely to take pen from large pile


Health message framing effects

Framing effects
-> breast cancer study: "benefits of mammography" vs "risk of neglecting mammography" -> detection behavior: negative framing effect
-> flu prevention: positive is better


Hartorf & Cantril (1954) Princeton-Dartmouth game

Each team said that other was cheating and failed to see faults of own team


Rosenhan and colleagues (1973) sane in insane places

Workers saw normal habits of normal people as psychotic because in institution


Darley & Gross (1983) Expectations of affluence

Confirmation bias
Descriptions of girl differed, same video of her intelligence test; those with poorer description rated as more hesitant, etc.


Ross & Lepper (1979) Capital punishment study

Confirmation bias
Exact same evidence, but supported preconception


Rosenthal's teacher study

Self-fulfilling prophecy
"Smart" students treated better, given more time/attention, etc. -> smarter


Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Self-fulfilling prophecy of attractiveness

Self-fulfilling prophecy
-men interact with women over intercom (no sight, but have folder with supposed pic and description- only pic varied)
->participants rated the more attractive pictured women as warmer and friendlier (halo effect)
->third party voted their voices and they actually were warmer and friendlier, cause all by how the man interacted with her


Andersen et al. (1980) Firefighter study

Belief perseverance
-half told being a risk takes makes for better firefighter, other half told opposite
->debriefed, then asked their own belief, and agreed with what they were told, even after informed that it was completely false


Exam study (Shepperd, Ouellette, Fernandez, 1996)

Bracing for the worst
-overly optimistic 1 month before
-just above actual results 5 days and 50 min before
-3 sec before feedback, very pessimistic


Peterson & Seligman

Explanatory styles
A person's habitual way of explaining events


Marital chores study

Self-serving attributional bias
-when add up the percent of chores each says they do, comes to over 100%


Ross, Amabile, & Steinmetz (1997) Quiz show study

Fundamental attribution error
-participants and those watching were asked how smart host was compared to other participants
->failed to account for the fact that the answers were in his hands


Jones & Harris (1967) Pro-Castro or Anti-Castro essays

Fundamental attribution error
-regardless of assigned or chose freely, participants who read them thought that authors truly believed the side they were arguing for


Lapiere (1934)

First study to demonstrate inconsistency between attitudes and behaviors

-LaPiere and friends were turned away once out of 250 establishments
-When asked 6 monte later, 92% of same establishments said they would not serve someone who was Chinese


Wicker (1969)

Reviewed literature and concluded no attitude-behavior consistency


Peg turn study (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959)

Insufficient justification
1. Turn a peg a quarter for an hour
2. Asks participant to tell next in like how exciting it was
-> half paid $1 (enjoyed more) other half paid $20 (enjoyed less)


Brehm (1956)

Post-decision dissonance
First published dissonance experiment
Studied post-decisional change in the ranking of products
Found spreading of alternative: the things they chose was later ranked significantly higher than the thing they did not choose


Fazio, Effrein, & Falender (1981)- introverted/ extroverted study on self-perception

Self-perception theory
-leading questions to make them seem intro/extroverted
->may move them a bit up or down from original on the scale, depending on the questions they were given


Greene, Sternberg, & Lepper (1976) Examined kids' interest in a task and how they were rewarded

Overjustification effects
-class of kids, educational games
-> 1/2 rewarded -> play more, when taken away show no interest