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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (43):
1

Sense of self

"Red dot" test
-Apes raised with others pass the test, but those raise in isolation do not
"Yellow snow" test
-Dogs pass
Children develop ability around 2 yo

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Self-concept

Person's beliefs about self, including their attributes (features) and who and what the self is
Three components: individual, relational, and collective self

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Individual self

What makes you unique?

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Relational self

What relationships are you in?

5

Collective self

What groups are you a member of?

6

Working self-concept

Aspects of your self-concept that are salient at a given time
Distinctiveness hypothesis

7

Distinctiveness hypothesis

We're more likely to mention aspects of our self-concept that make us different from those around us (at given time)

8

Origins of self-knowldge

Direct feedback- info received from others about our traits and abilities (note: we usually receive positive feedback)

Reflected self-appraisals- our perception of how others perceive and evaluate us (highly subjective, subject to error; particularly imp in adolescence)

Social comparison- act of comparing our traits and abilities with the traits and abilities of others
Types: upward (self to better), downward (self to worse off), temporal (self over time)

Self-perception- making inferences about traits by observing one's own behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs

Self-narratives- we continually "write" our own story or narrative
-helps us to INTEGRATE across situations
-make sense of CONFLICT or TRAUMA
-explain CHANGE over time
-serves as a REFERENCE for self-knowledge

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Festinger (1954) Theory of social comparison

People want to know where they stand in their abilities, traits, and attitudes
People prefer objective standards of comparison (when not available, use social standard)
People compare themselves to similar others (but not always)

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Upward social comparison

Comparing with someone better than you
Most useful and appealing when trying to get BETTER (feel you could be them someday, otherwise discouraging)
Motivating IF you assimilate

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Downward social comparison

Comparing to someone worse off than you
Boost own self-esteem IF contrast

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Temporal comparison

Comparing us to ourselves at different times
Want to improve over time

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Redemptive narratives (Dunlop & Tracy, 2013)

Important process and part of being human

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Direct feedback

Info received from others about our traits and abilities (note: we usually receive positive feedback)

15

Reflected self-appraisals

Our perception of how others perceive and evaluate us (highly subjective, subject to error; particularly imp in adolescence)

16

Social comparison

Act of comparing our traits and abilities with the traits and abilities of others
Types: upward (self to better), downward (self to worse off), temporal (self over time)

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Self-perception

Making inferences about traits by observing one's own behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs

18

Self-narratives

We continually "write" our own story or narrative
-helps us to INTEGRATE across situations
-make sense of CONFLICT or TRAUMA
-explain CHANGE over time
-serves as a REFERENCE for self-knowledge

19

Introspection

Not very reliable source of self-knowledge

20

Power saw study (Nibett & Wilson, 1977)

Introspection
Watch movie, half participants had power saw interruption
DV- how much like movie and why

Both groups liked movie EQUALLY!
Interrupted group thought they would have liked it more

21

Mood diary study (Wilson, Laser & Stone, 1982)

Introspection
Wrote daily moods and factors the could have effected them (sleep, weather, etc.)

Indicated how much these factors affected them (they were WRONG)

22

Schema

Collection of related beliefs or ideas that people use to organize their knowledge about the world

Types
-Scripts: schemes for events
-Stereotypes: schemes for particular group of people

Resistant to change

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Self-schemas

Cognitive structures that represent a person's beliefs and feeling about the self in particular domains

Helps the retrieval of self-schema related behaviors

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Self-reference effect

Information is better recalled when it is related to the self

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Cultural influences

Independent self- a view of the self as autonomous and in competition with others (think western culture)

Interdependent self- a view of the self as part of a larger social network, emphasizing social harmony (think eastern culture)
-> Pen study
-those of western culture more likely to take unique pen
-eastern culture more likely to take pen from large pile

26

Self-esteem

The global of overall evaluation that one has of oneself (positive or negative)

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Traits vs state self-esteem

Trait:
Most people have high self-esteem
-baseline: usually rerun to
-especially true in western culture

State:
Fluctuations in self-esteem over time and in different domains
-moves around a lot

28

Sociometer theory (Leary)

Self-esteem is a metric for how we are doing socially

-based in evolutionary theories
-self-esteem is particularly sensitive to rejection

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High self-esteem

Benefits
-more satisfied with life
-less depressed
-more engaged with difficult tasks
-less prone to antisocial and criminal behavior
-better life outcomes in general

Problems
-narcissism
-agression in response to negative feedback
-particularly problematic in unstable or inflated

"Everyone is special" movement -> inflation

30

Self-regulation

Processes by which people initiate, alter, and control their behavior to pursue goals
-requires delay of gratification and resistance to temptation
-ego depletion

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Ego-depletion

Like a muscle, self-control resources can be exhausted through use

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Increase self-control resources

Give people incentives for later self-control
Improve people's mood
Give people sugar (glucose)?

33

Self-motivations

Feel good- need for a positive self-view and to protect against negative feedback (self-enchancement)

Be consistent- need to maintain a stable self-concept (self-verification)

Be correct- desire for accurate self-knowledge (self-appraisal)

34

Tesser's self-evaluation maintenance model

We make ourselves feel good through reflection (being connected to someone who does X well/ basking in reflected glory) and comparison (connected to someone who does Y better than you)

Key factors:
-importance (Y is not important)
-performance (be better than friend at Y)
-closeness (walk away from friend)

35

Self Biases

Better-than-average effect:
The tendency to perceive ourselves as better than the average person
-strongest for dimensions that are subjective and desirable
-exception: worse-than-average effect for difficult tasks

False-consensus effect:
Self-enchancement
Tendency to overestimate the incidence or commonality of one's undesirable traits or unsuccessful behaviors

False-uniqueness effect:
Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's desirable traits or successful behaviors

36

Better-than-average effect

The tendency to perceive ourselves as better than the average person
-strongest for dimensions that are subjective and desirable
-exception: worse-than-average effect for difficult tasks

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False-consensus effect

Self-enchancement
Tendency to overestimate the incidence or commonality of one's undesirable traits or unsuccessful behaviors

38

False-uniqueness effect

Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's desirable traits or successful behaviors

39

The public self

Self-presentation:
Controlling, regulating, and monitoring the information we provide about ourselves
-creating a desired identity to present to others
-audience may be external, imaginary, or self
-multiple audience problem: different sides of you may not be compatible, which poses a problem when the two audiences come together

Self-handicapping:
Protecting one's self-image by creating a handy excuse for failure

Self-monitoring:
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting performance to create the desired impression

40

Self-presentation

Controlling, regulating, and monitoring the information we provide about ourselves
-creating a desired identity to present to others
-audience may be external, imaginary, or self
-multiple audience problem: different sides of you may not be compatible, which poses a problem when the two audiences come together

41

Multiple audience problem

Different sides of you may not be compatible, which poses a problem when the two audiences come together

42

Self-handicapping

Protecting one's self-image by creating a handy excuse for failure

Gender differences:
On average men self-handicap more, blaming drugs and alcohol to do so more than women
Women rely more on illness and stress

43

Self-monitoring

Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting performance to create the desired impression

High self-monitors:
-sensitive to social cues
-social chameleons who work to project an image that they think others want to see

Low self-monitors:
-lack either ability or motivation to regulate self-presentations
-focus on being self-consistent and relatively unconcerned with their impression